Effects of positive youth development programs on school, family, and community systems

  • Joseph A. Durlak
  • Rebecca D. Taylor
  • Kei Kawashima
  • Molly K. Pachan
  • Emily P. DuPre
  • Christine I. Celio
  • Sasha R. Berger
  • Allison B. Dymnicki
  • Roger P. Weissberg
Original Paper

Abstract

A review of efforts at social system change in 526 universal competence-promotion outcome studies indicated that 64% of the interventions attempted some type of microsystemic or mesosystemic change involving schools, families, or community-based organizations in an attempt to foster developmental competencies in children and adolescents. Only 24% of the reports provided quantitative data on the change that occurred in targeted systems. However, studies containing the necessary information produced several mean effect sizes that were statistically significant, and ranged from modest to large in magnitude. These data indicate that attempts to change social systems affecting children and adolescents can be successful. Future work should measure more thoroughly the extent to which the systemic changes that are targeted through intervention are achieved, and investigate how such changes contribute to the development and sustainability of the outcomes that might be demonstrated by participants of competence-promotion programs.

Keywords

Meta-analysis Positive youth development Prevention Promotion Systems Youth 

References

*References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the review. Some reports contain data on more than one intervention.

  1. *Aber, J. L., Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., Chaundry, N., & Samples, F. (1998). Resolving conflict creatively: Evaluating the developmental effects of a school-based violence prevention program in neighborhood and classroom context. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 187–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. *Aberson, B. (1986). I can problem solve (ICPS): A cognitive training program for kindergarten children. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  3. *Allen, G. J., Chinsky, J. M., Larcen, S. W., Lochman, J. E., & Selinger, H. V. (1976). Community psychology and the schools: A behaviorally-oriented multilevel approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. *Allen, J. P., Juperminc, G., Philliber, S., & Herre, K. (1994). Programmatic prevention of adolescent problem behaviors: The role of autonomy, relatedness, and volunteer service in the teen outreach program. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 617–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. *Allen, J. P., & Phillber, S. (2001). Who benefits most from a broadly targeted prevention program? Differential efficacy across populations in the teen outreach program. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 637–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. *Allen, J. P., Phillber, S., Herrling, S., & Kuperminc, G. P. (1997). Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: Experimental evaluation of a developmentally based approach. Child Development, 64, 729–742.Google Scholar
  7. *Allen, J. P., Phillber, S., & Hoggson, N. (1990). School-based prevention of teenage pregnancy and school dropout: Process evaluation of the national replication of the teen outreach program. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 505–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. *Allred, C. G. (1984). The development and evaluation of positive action: A systematic elementary school self-concept enhancement curriculum. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.Google Scholar
  9. *Alpert-Gillis, L. J., Pedro-Carroll, J. L., & Cowen, E. L. (1989). The children of divorce intervention program: Development, implementation, and evaluation of a program for young urban children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 583–589.Google Scholar
  10. *Astroth, K. A., & Haynes, G. W. (2002). More than cows and cooking: Newest research shows the impact of 4-H. Journal of Extension, 40, 1–10.Google Scholar
  11. *Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., Solomon, D., & Lewis, C. (2000). Effect of the Child Development Project on students’ drug use and other problem behaviors. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 21, 75–99.Google Scholar
  12. Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Wilson, N. (2004). Effects of an elementary school intervention on students’ “connectedness” to school and social adjustment during middle school. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 24, 243–262.Google Scholar
  13. *Belgrave, F. Z., Chase-Vaughn, G., Gray, F., Addison, J. D., & Cherry, V. R. (2000). The effectiveness of a culture- and gender-specific intervention for increasing resiliency among African American preadolescent females. Journal of Black Psychology, 26, 133–147.Google Scholar
  14. *Bhadwal, S. C., & Panda, P. K. (1992). The composite effect of a curricular programme on the test anxiety of rural primary school students; A one-year study. Educational Review, 44, 205–220.Google Scholar
  15. *Bornstein, M. T., Bornstein, P. H., & Walters, H. A. (1988). Children of divorce: Empirical evaluation of a group-treatment program. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 248–254.Google Scholar
  16. *Bredehoft, D. J., Hey, R. N. (1985). An evaluation study of self-esteem: A family affair. Family Relations, 34, 411–417.Google Scholar
  17. *Brody, G. H., McBride Murry, V., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Molgaard, V., & McNair, L. (2004). The Strong African American Families Program: Translating research into prevention programming. Child Development, 75, 900–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. *Buehler, C., Betz, P., Ryan, C. M., Legg, B. H., & Trotter, B. B. (1992). Description and evaluation of the orientation for divorcing parents: Implications for post-divorce prevention programs. Family Relations, 41, 154–162.Google Scholar
  20. *Caplan, M., Weissberg, R. P., Grober, J., Sivo, P. J., Grady, K., & Jacoby, C. (1992). Social competence promotion with inner-city and suburban young adolescents: Effects on social adjustment and alcohol use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. *Cappas, C. L. (1991). Development and evaluation of a prevention program for children of low socioeconomic status who experienced a geographical relocation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green University, Bowling Green.Google Scholar
  22. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, D. (2002). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention & Treatment, 5, Article 15. Retrieved July 14, 2004, from http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/ pre0050015a.html.Google Scholar
  23. *Catalano, R. F., Mazza, J. J., Harachi, T. W., Abbott, R. D., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. B. (2003). Raising healthy children through enhancing social development in elementary school: Results after 1.5 years. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 143–164.Google Scholar
  24. *Cauce, A. M., Comer, J. P., & Schwartz, D. (1987). Long term effects of a systems-oriented school prevention program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 127–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. *Center for Human Resources. (1999). Summary report: National evaluation of Learn and Serve America. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.Google Scholar
  26. *Chase, R. A. (2000). Hmong American Partnership: 2HTN final report. St. Paul, MN: Wilder Research Center.Google Scholar
  27. Collaborative for Academic, Social, Emotional Learning. (2003). Safe and sound: An educational leader’s guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning programs. Chicago, IL: Author.Google Scholar
  28. Commission on Positive Youth Development. (2005). The positive perspective on youth development. In D. W. Evans, E. B. Foa, R. E. Gur, H. Hendin, C. P. O’brien, M. E. P. Seligman, & B. T. Walsh (Eds.), Treating and preventing adolescent mental health disorders: What we know and what we don’t know (pp. 497–527). NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. *Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). Initial impact of the fast track prevention trial for conduct problems II. Classroom effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 648–657.Google Scholar
  30. *Conrad, D. E. (1980). The differential impact of experiential learning programs on secondary school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  31. Conrad, D., & Hedin, D. (1989). High school community service: A review of research and programs. Madison, WI: National Center on Effective Secondary Schools.Google Scholar
  32. *Cook, T. D., Habib, F., Phillips, M., Settersten, R. A., Shagle, S. C., & Degirmencioglu, S. M. (1999). Comer’s School Development Program in Prince George’s County, Maryland: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 36, 543–597.Google Scholar
  33. *Cook, T. D., Murphy, R. F., & Hunt, H. D. (2000). Comer’s School Development Program in Chicago: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 535–597.Google Scholar
  34. *Dolan, L. J., Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Werthamer-Larsson, L., Rebok, G. W., & Mayer, L. S. (1993). The short-term impact of two classroom-based preventive interventions on aggressive and shy behaviors and poor achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 317–345.Google Scholar
  35. DuBois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 157–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Durlak, J. A. (1997). Successful prevention programs for children and adolescents. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  37. Durlak, J. A. (2000). Health promotion as a preventive strategy. In D. Cicchetti, J. Rappaport, I. Sandler, & R. P. Weissberg (Eds.), The promotion of wellness in children and adolescents (pp. 221–241). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America Press.Google Scholar
  38. Durlak, J. A., & Dupre, E. P. (in press). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology.Google Scholar
  39. Durlak, J. A., Meerson, I., & Ewell-Foster, C. (2003). Meta-analysis. In J. C. Thomas, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Understanding research in clinical and counseling psychology: A textbook (pp. 243–267). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  40. Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2005). A major meta-analysis of positive youth development programs. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  41. Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from http://www.CASEL.org.Google Scholar
  42. Durlak, J. A., & Wells, A. M. (1997). Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 115–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. *Eggert, L. L., Thompson, E. A., Herting, J. R., & Nicholas, L. J. (1995). Reducing suicide potential among high-risk youth: Tests of a school-based prevention program. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 276–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. *Eiserman, W. D. (1990). An evaluation of the first year pilot implementation of positive action at Montclair Elementary. Unpublished summary report, Educational Research and Development Center, The University of West Florida.Google Scholar
  45. *Elias, M. J. (2002). Evidence of effectiveness articles: The Social Decision Making/Problem Solving Program. Unpublished technical report, University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey.Google Scholar
  46. *Elias, M. J., Gara, M., Ubriaco, M., Rothbaum, P. A., Clabby, J. F., & Schuyler, T. (1986). Impact of a preventive social problem solving intervention on children’s coping with middle school stressors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 259–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. *Elliott, S. N. (1996). The responsive classroom approach: Its effectiveness and acceptability in promoting social and academic competence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  48. *Espino, J., Fabiano, L., & Pearson, L. M. (2004). Citizen Schools: Evidence from two student cohorts on the use of community resources to promote youth development. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates.Google Scholar
  49. *Farrell, A. D., & Meyer, A. L. (1997). The effectiveness of a school-based curriculum for reducing violence among urban sixth-grade students. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 979–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. *Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., & White, K. S. (2001). Evaluation of responding in peaceful and positive ways (RIPP): A school-based prevention program for reducing violence among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 451–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. *Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Adan, A. M., Mulhall, P. F., Flowers, N., Sartain, B. et al. (1993). Restructuring the ecology of the school as an approach to prevention during school transitions: Longitudinal follow-ups and extensions of the School Transitional Environment Project (STEP). Prevention in Human Services, 10, 103–136.Google Scholar
  52. *Felner, R. D., Ginter, M., & Primavera, J. (1982). Primary prevention during school transitions: Social support and environmental structure. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 277–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. *Flannery, D. J., Vazsonyi, A. T., Liau, A. K., Guo, S., Powell, K. E., & Atha, H. (2003). Initial behavior outcomes for the PeaceBuilders Universal School-based Violence Prevention Program. Developmental Psychology, 39, 292–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Flay, B. R. (2000). Approaches to substance use prevention utilizing school curriculum plus social environment change. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 861–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. *Flay, B. R., & Allred, C. G. (2003). Long-term effects of the Positive Action Program-A Comprehensive, Positive Youth Development Program. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(Supp 1), S6-S21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. *Flay, B. R., Allred, C. G., & Ordway, N. (2001). Effects of the Positive Action Program on achievement and discipline: Two matched-control comparisons. Prevention Science, 2, 71–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. *Flay, B. R., Graumlich, S., Segawa, E., Burns, J. L., & Holliday, M. Y. (2004). Effects of 2 prevention programs on high-risk behaviors among African American youth. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 158, 377–384.Google Scholar
  58. *Foley, E. M., & Eddins, G. (2001). Preliminary analysis of Virtual Y after-school program participants’ patterns of school attendance and academic performance: Final evaluation report program year 1999–2000. NY: National Center for Schools and Communities, Fordham University.Google Scholar
  59. *Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (1999). Parenting through change: An effective prevention program for single mothers. Journal of Consulting and Counseling Psychology, 67, 711–724.Google Scholar
  60. Foster-Fishman, P. (2000). Creating system change. Lansing, MI: Michigan Developmental Disabilities Council.Google Scholar
  61. *Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., Snell, J. L., Edstrom, L. V. S., MacKenzie, E. P., & Broderick, C. J. (2005). Reducing playground bullying and supporting beliefs: An experimental trial of the Steps to Respect Program. Developmental Psychology, 41, 479–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. *Frey, K. S. (2004). Effects of a school-based social-emotional competence program; linking goals, attributions, and behavior. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  63. *Fuentes, E. G. (1975). A primary prevention program for psychological and cultural identity enhancement: Puerto Rican children in semi-rural northeast United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston.Google Scholar
  64. *Gainer, P. S., Webster, D. W., & Champion, H. R. (1993). A youth violence prevention program. Violence Prevention, 128, 303–308.Google Scholar
  65. *Gares, G. M. (1991). The effects of operation aware on self-concept self-esteem and behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, New Brunswick.Google Scholar
  66. *Gerler, E. R. (1980). A longitudinal study of multimodal approaches to small group psychological education. The School Counselor, 27, 184–190.Google Scholar
  67. Gettinger, M. (1988). Methods of proactive classroom management. School Psychology Review, 17, 227–242.Google Scholar
  68. *Glascock, P. C. (1999). The effects of parenting skills training on self-perception of parenting skills, locus of control, and academic competency for at-risk adolescents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro.Google Scholar
  69. *Glidewell, J. C., Gildea, M., & Kaufman, M. K. (1973). The preventative and therapeutic effects of two school based mental health programs. American Journal of Community Psychology, 4, 295–329.Google Scholar
  70. *Glover, G. J. (1996). Filial therapy with Native Americans on the Flathead Reservation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton.Google Scholar
  71. Gorall, D. M., & Olson, D. H. (1995). Circumplex model of family systems: Integrating ethnic diversity and other social systems. In R. H. Mikesell, D. D. Lusterman, & S. H. McDaniel (Eds.), Integrating family therapy: Handbook of family psychology and systems theory (pp. 217–233). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  72. *Gosin, M. N., Dustman, P. A., Drapeau, A. E., & Harthun, M. L. (2003). Participatory action research: Creating an effective prevention curriculum for adolescents in the southwestern US. Health Education Research, 18, 363–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. *Gottfredson, D. C. (1988). An evaluation of an organization development approach to reducing school disorder. Evaluation Review, 11, 739–763.Google Scholar
  74. *Gottfredson, D. C. (1986). An empirical test of school-based environmental and individual interventions to reduce the risk of delinquent behavior. Criminology, 24, 705–731.Google Scholar
  75. *Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, G. D., & Hybl, L. G. (1993). Managing adolescent behavior: A multiyear, multischool study. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 179–215.Google Scholar
  76. *Greenberg, M. T., & Kusche, C. A. (1998). Preventive intervention for school-age deaf children: The PATHS curriculum. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 3, 49–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. *Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 117–136.Google Scholar
  78. Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., & Elias, M. J. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. *Greenwood, C. R., Hops, H., & Walker, H. M. (1977). The Program for Academic Survival Skills (PASS): Effects on student behavior and achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 15, 25–35.Google Scholar
  80. *Greenwood, C. R., Hops, H., Walker, H. M., Guild, J. J., Stokes, J., & Young, K. R. (1979). Standardized classroom management program: Social validation and replication studies in Utah and Oregon. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 235–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. *Grossman, J. B., & Tierney, J. P. (1998). Does mentoring work? An impact study of the Big Brothers Big Sisters program. Evaluation Review, 22, 403–426.Google Scholar
  82. *Guerney Jr., B. G., Coufal, J., & Vogelsong, E. (1981). Relationship enhancement versus a traditional approach to therapeutic/preventive/enrichment parent-adolescent programs. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 49, 927–939.Google Scholar
  83. *Hahn, A., Leavitte, T., & Aaron, P. (1994). Evaluation of the Quantum Opportunities Program (QOP): Did the program work? Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, Heller Graduate School, Center for Human Resources.Google Scholar
  84. *Hains, A. A., & Szyjakowski, M. (1990). A cognitive stress-reduction intervention program for adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 79–84.Google Scholar
  85. *Hamilton, S. F., & Zeldin, R. S. (1987). Learning civics in the community. Curriculum Inquiry, 17, 407–419.Google Scholar
  86. *Hampson, R. B., & Tavormina, J. B. (1980). Relative effectiveness of behavioral and reflective group training with foster mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 294–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Harachi, T. W., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., & Fleming, C. B. (1999). Opening the black box: Using process evaluation measures to assess implementation and theory building. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 711–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. *Harrington, N. G., Giles, S. M., Hoyle, R. H., Feeney, G. J., & Yungbluth, S. C. (2001). Evaluation of the All Stars Character Education and Problem Behavior Prevention program: Effects on mediator and outcome variables for middle school students. Health Education and Behavior, 28, 533–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. *Hartman, L. M. (1979). The preventive reduction of psychological risk in asymptomatic adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 121–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. *Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Morrison, D. M., O’Donnell, J., Abbott, R. D., & Day, L. E. (1992). The Seattle Social Development Project: Effects of the first four years on protective factors and problem behaviors. In J. McCord, & R. Tremblay (Eds.), The prevention of antisocial behavior in children (pp. 140–160). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  91. *Hawkins, J. D., Doueck, H. J., & Lishner, D. M. (1988). Changing teaching practices in mainstream classrooms to improve bonding and behavior of low achievers. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 31–50.Google Scholar
  92. *Hawkins, J., & Backscheider, A. (2001). Teaching children and their parents parenting skills: A preliminary evaluation of the Parents Under Construction program (formerly known as the Primary Prevention Program) 4–6th grade parent/child curriculum. Unpublished manuscript, University of Houston.Google Scholar
  93. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  94. *Hennessey, B. A. (2004). Promoting social competence in school-aged children: The effects of the open circle program. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  95. *Hiebert, B., Kirby, B., & Jaknavorian, A. (1989). School-based relaxation: Attempting primary prevention. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 23, 273–287.Google Scholar
  96. Ho, B. S. (2002). Application of participatory action research to family–school intervention. School Psychology Review, 31, 106–121.Google Scholar
  97. *Hogue, A., Liddle, H. A., Becker, D., & Johnson-Leckrone, J. (2002). Family-based prevention counseling for high-risk young adolescents: Immediate outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 1–22.Google Scholar
  98. *Hudley, C. (1999). Problem behaviors in middle childhood: Understanding risk status and protective factors. Montreal, Canada: California Wellness Foundation.Google Scholar
  99. *Hundert, J., Boyle, M. H., Cunningham, C. E., Duku, E., Heale, J., McDonald J. et al. (1999). Helping children adjust – A tri-ministry study: II. Program effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1061–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. *Ialongo, N. S., Werthamer, L., Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Wang, S., & Lin, Y. (1999). Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on the early risk behaviors for later substance abuse, depression, and antisocial behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 599–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. *Jackson, M. D., & Brown, D. (1986). Use of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) with elementary school parents. The School Counselor, 34, 100–105.Google Scholar
  102. Jason, K. A., Pokorny, S. B., Kunz, C., & Adams, M. (2004). Maintenance of community change: Enforcing youth access to youth tobacco laws. Journal of Drug Education, 34, 105–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. *Jason, L. A., Betts, D., Johnson, J., Smith, S., Krueckeberg, S., Cradock M. et al. (1989). An evaluation of an orientation plus tutoring school-based prevention program. Professional School Psychology, 4, 273–284.Google Scholar
  104. Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40, 237–269.Google Scholar
  105. Johnson, W. B., & Flay, B. R. (1990). Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 447–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. *Jones, M. B., & Offord, D. R. (1989). Reduction of antisocial behavior in poor children by non-school skill-development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 737–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. *Kacir, C., & Gordon, D. A. (1999). Parenting adolescents wisely: The effectiveness of an interactive videodisk parent training program in Appalachia. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 21, 1–22.Google Scholar
  108. *Kaufman, J. S. (1993). The prevention of loneliness in children through social skills enhancement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, DePaul University, Chicago.Google Scholar
  109. *Kellam, S. G., & Anthony, J. C. (1998). Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: Findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1490–1495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. *Kellam, S. G., Branch, J. D., Agrawal, K. C., & Ensminger, M. E. (1975). Mental health and going to school: The Woodlawn Program of assessment, early intervention, and evaluation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  111. *Kenney, D. J., & Watson, T. S. (1996). Reducing fear in the schools: Managing conflict through student problem solving. Education and Urban Society, 28, 436–455.Google Scholar
  112. *Knoff, H. M., & Batsche, G. M. (1995). Project ACHIEVE: Analyzing a school reform process for at-risk and underachieving students. School Psychology Review, 24, 579–603.Google Scholar
  113. *Kratochwill, T. R., McDonald, L., Bear-Tibbitts, H. Y., & Levin, J. R. (2001). Families and schools together: An experimental analysis of parent-mediated early intervention program for at-risk American Indian children. University of Wisconsin, Madison: Wisconsin Center for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  114. *Kraus, L. J., & Hughey, K. F. (1999). The impact of an intervention on career decision-making, self-efficacy and career indecision. Professional School Counseling, 2, 384–390.Google Scholar
  115. *Krug, E. G., Brener, N. D., Dahlberg, L. L., Ryan, G. W., & Powell, K. E. (1997). The impact of an elementary school-based violence prevention program on visits to the school nurse. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 13, 459–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. *Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Tait, C., & Turner, C. (2002). Effectiveness of school-based family and children’s skills training for substance abuse prevention among 6–8-year-old rural children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(Suppl.2), 65–71.Google Scholar
  117. *LaFrance, S., Twersky, F., Latham, N., Foley, E., Bott, C., Lee, L. et al. (2001). A safe place for healthy youth development: A comprehensive evaluation of the Bayview Safe Haven. San Francisco, CA: BTW Consultants and LaFrance Associates.Google Scholar
  118. *Lagges, A. M., & Gordon, D. A. (1999). Use of an interactive laserdisc parent training program with teenage parents. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 21, 19–37.Google Scholar
  119. *Lauver, S. C. (2002). Assessing the benefits of an after-school program for urban youth: An impact and process evaluation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  120. *Leadbeater, B., Hoglunch, W., & Woods, T. (2003). Changing contexts? The effects of a primary prevention program on classroom levels of peer relational and physical victimization. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 397–418.Google Scholar
  121. *Leming, J. S. (2000). Tell me a story: An evaluation of a literature-based character education programme. Journal of Moral Education, 29, 413–427.Google Scholar
  122. *Lewis, T. J., Powers, L. J., Kelk, M. J., & Newcomer, L. L. (2002). Reducing problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of schoolwide positive behavior supports. Psychology in the Schools, 29, 181–190.Google Scholar
  123. Liang, B., Tracy, A. J., Taylor, C. A., & Williams, L. M. (2002). Mentoring college-age women: A relational approach. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 271–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. *Lillenstein, J. A. (2001). Efficacy of a social skills training curriculum with early elementary students in four parochial schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  125. *Linares, O. L., Rosbruch, N., Stern, M. B., Edwards, M. E., Walker, G., Abikoff, H. B. et al. (2005). Developing cognitive-social-emotional competencies to enhance academic learning. Psychology in the Schools, 42(4), 405–417.Google Scholar
  126. Lispey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  127. *Lopez, B. G., & Lopez, R. G. (1998). The improvement of moral development through an increase in reflection. A training programme. Journal of Moral Education, 27, 225–241.Google Scholar
  128. *LoSciuto, L., Hilbert, S. M., Fox, M. M., Porcellini, L., & Lanphear, A. (1999). A two-year evaluation of the Woodrock Youth Development Project. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 488–507.Google Scholar
  129. *LoSciuto, L., Rajala, A. K., Townsend, T. N., & Taylor, A. S. (1996). An outcome evaluation across ages: An intergenerational mentoring approach to drug prevention. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 116–129.Google Scholar
  130. *Martinez, C. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (2001). Preventing problems with boys’ noncompliance: Effects of a parent training intervention for divorcing mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 416–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. *Masters, J. R., & Laverty, G. E. (1977). The relationship between changes in attitude and changes in behavior in the schools without failure program. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 10, 36–49.Google Scholar
  132. *Mayer, G. R., Kranzler, G. D., & Matthes, W. A. (1967). Elementary school counseling and peer relations. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 46, 360–365.Google Scholar
  133. *McCabe, L. A. Violence prevention in early childhood: Implementing the Second Step curriculum in child care and Head Start classrooms. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  134. *McClanahan, W. S., Sipe, C. L., & Smith, T. J. (2004). Enriching summer work: An evaluation of the summer career exploration program. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.Google Scholar
  135. *McKay, G. D., & Hillman, B. W. (1979). An Adlerian multimedia approach to parent education. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 14, 28–35.Google Scholar
  136. *McNeese, R. M. F. (1999). Reducing violent behavior in the classroom: A comparison of two middle schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University.Google Scholar
  137. *Menesini, E., Codecasa, E., Benelli, B., & Cowie, H. (2003). Enhancing children’s responsibility to take action against bullying: Evaluation of a befriending intervention in Italian middle schools. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 1–14.Google Scholar
  138. *Merry, S., McDowell, H., Wild, C. J., Julliet, B., & Cunliffe, R. (2004). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a school-based depression prevention program. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 538–547.Google Scholar
  139. *Metis Associates. (1996–1997). Atlanta public schools: Resolving conflict creatively program: Summary of the final evaluation report. New York: Metis Associates.Google Scholar
  140. *Meyer, J. B., Strowig, W., & Hosford, R. E. (1970). Behavioral-reinforcement counseling with rural high school youth. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 17, 127–132.Google Scholar
  141. *Mikami, A. Y., Boucher, M. A., & Humphreys, K. (2005). Prevention of peer rejection through a classroom-level intervention in middle school. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 5–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. *Miller, A. L., Gouley, K. K., Seifer, R., & Zakriski, A. (2003). Evaluating the effectiveness of the PATHS curriculum in an urban elementary school. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Society for Prevention Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  143. *Moberg, D. P., McDonald, L. W., Brown, R., & Burke, M. (2003). Randomized trial of Families and Schools Together (FAST). Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Prevention Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  144. Moos, R. H. (1979). Evaluating educational environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  145. *Morehouse, E. R., & Tobler, N. S. (2000). Project SUCCESS final report. New York: Tobler Research Associates.Google Scholar
  146. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  147. *Nelson, G., & Carson, P. (1988). Evaluation of a social problem-solving skills problem for third- and fourth-grade students. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 79–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. *Nelson, J. R., Martella, R. M., & Machand-Martella, N. (2002). Maximizing student learning: The effects of a comprehensive school-based program for preventing problem behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10, 136–148.Google Scholar
  149. *Neufeld, J., Smith, M. G., Estes, H., & Hill, G. C. (1995). Rural after school child care: A demonstration project in a remote mining community. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 14, 12–16.Google Scholar
  150. *O’Donnell, J., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Abbott, R., & Day, L. E. (1995). Preventing school failure, drug use, and delinquency among low-income children: Long-term intervention in elementary schools. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 87–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. *Olweus, D. (1994). Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1171–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. *Openshaw, D. K., Mills, T. A., Adams, G. R., & Durso, D. D. (1992). Conflict resolution in parent-adolescent dyads. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 457–468.Google Scholar
  153. *Orpinas, P., Kelder, S., Frankowski, R., Murray, N., Zhang, Q., & McAlister, A. (2000). Outcome evaluation of a multi-component violence-prevention program for middle schools: The Students for Peace Project. Health Education Research, 15, 45–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. *Ostheim, P. Q. (1995). Effects of community service and service learning on multidimensional self concept of secondary school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.Google Scholar
  155. *Oyserman, D., Terry, K., & Bybee, D. (2002). A possible selves intervention to enhance school involvement. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 313–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. *Palmer, S., & Cochran, L. (1988). Parents as agents of career development. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 35, 71–76.Google Scholar
  157. *Pantin, H., Coatsworth, J. D., Feaster, D. J., Newman, F. L., Briones, E., Prado, G. et al. (2001). Familias Unidas: The efficacy of an intervention to promote parental investment in Hispanic immigrant families. Prevention Science, 4, 189–201.Google Scholar
  158. *Peleg, A., Neumann, L., Firger, M., Peleg, R., & Sperber, A. D. (2001). Outcomes of a brief alcohol abuse prevention program for Israeli high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 28, 263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Perry, C. L, Williams, C. L., Veblen-Mortenson, S., Toomey, T. L. et al. (1996). Project Northland: Outcomes of a community wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 956–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Peters, R. DeV., Petrunka, K., & Arnold, R. (2003). The Better Beginnings, Better Futures Project: A universal, comprehensive, community-based prevention approach for primary school children and their families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 215–227.Google Scholar
  161. *Phillber, S., Kaye, J., & Herrling, S. (2001). The national evaluation of the Children’s Aid Society Carrera Model Program to prevent teen pregnancy. Accord, NY: Philliber Research Associates.Google Scholar
  162. *Philliber, S., & Allen, J. P. (1992). Life options and community service: Teen outreach program. In B. C. Miller (Ed.), Preventing adolescent pregnancy: Model programs and evaluations (pp. 139–155). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  163. *Philliber, S., Kaye, J. W., Herrling, S. H., & West, E. (2002). Preventing pregnancy and improving health care access among teenagers: An evaluation of the Children’s Aid Society-Carrera program. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34, 244–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. *Pierce, L. H., & Shields, N. (1998). The Be a Star community-based after-school program: Developing resiliency in high-risk preadolescent youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 175–183.Google Scholar
  165. *Pinsker, M., & Geoffroy, K. (1981). A comparison of parent effectiveness training and behavior modification parent training. Family Relations, 30, 61–68.Google Scholar
  166. Pittman, K., Irby, M., Tolman, J., Yohalem, N., & Ferber, T. (2003). Preventing problems, promoting development, encouraging engagement: Competing priorities or inseparable goals? Based upon Pittman, K. & Irby, M. (1996). Preventing problems or promoting development? Washington, DC: The Forum for Youth Investment, Impact Strategies, Inc.Google Scholar
  167. *Polit, D. F., & Kahn, J. R. (1985). Project redirection: Evaluation of a comprehensive program for disadvantaged teenage mothers. Family Planning Perspectives, 17, 150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. *Powers, L. E., Turner, A., Westwood, D., Matuszewski, J., Wilson, R., & Phillips, A. (2001). Take charge for the future: A controlled field-test of a model to promote student involvement in transition planning. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 24, 89–104.Google Scholar
  169. *Prenovost, J. K. E. (2001). A first-year evaluation of after school learning programs in four urban middle schools in the Santa Ana unified school district. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Irvine.Google Scholar
  170. *Quest International. (1995). Report for U.S. Department of Education expert panel on safe, disciplines, and drug-free schools: Lions-quest skills for growing. Newark, OH: Quest.Google Scholar
  171. *Quint, J. (1991). Project redirection: Making and measuring a difference. Evaluation and Program Planning, 14, 75–86.Google Scholar
  172. *Randolph, D. L., & Hardage, N. C. (1973). Behavioral consultation and group counseling with potential dropouts. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 7, 204–209.Google Scholar
  173. *Redmond, C., Spoth, R., Shin, C., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). Modeling long-term parent outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: One-year follow-up results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 975–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. *Reid, J. B., Eddy, M., Fetrow, A., & Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Description and immediate impacts of a preventive intervention for conduct problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 483–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. *Renfro, J., Huebner, R., & Ritchey, B. (2003). School violence prevention: The effects of a university and high school partnership. Journal of School Violence, 2, 81–99.Google Scholar
  176. *Reyes, O., & Jason, L. A. (1991). An evaluation of a high school dropout prevention program. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 221–230.Google Scholar
  177. *Roberts, L., White, G., & Yeomans, P. (2004). Theory development and evaluation of Project WIN: A violence reduction program for early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24, 460–483.Google Scholar
  178. *Rollin, S. A., Rubin, R., Marcil, R., Ferullo, U., & Buncher, R. (1995). Project KICK: A school-based drug education health promotion research project. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 8, 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. *Roth, J. H. & Dadds, M. R. (2001). Prevention of internalizing problems in early childhood: Results of a universal trial. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  180. Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Youth development programs: Risk, prevention and policy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 170–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. *Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Lee, M. B., Gwadz, M., & Draimin, B. (2001). An intervention for parents with AIDS and their adolescent children. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1294–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. *Royse, D. (1998). Mentoring high-risk minority youth: Evaluation of the Brothers Project. Adolescence, 33, 145–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. *Rusche, S., Kemp, P., Krizmanich, J., Bowles, E., Moore Jr., B., & Craig, H. E. (1999). Helping everyone reach out: Club Hero, final report. Atlanta, GA: National Families in Action & Emstar Research.Google Scholar
  184. *Sanders, M. R., Montgomery, D. T., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. L. (2000). The mass media and the prevention of child behavior problems: The evaluation of a television series to promote positive outcomes for parents and their children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 939–948.Google Scholar
  185. *Sandler, I. N., Ayers, T. S., Wolchik, S. A., Tein, J. Y., Kwok, O. M., Haine R. A. et al. (2003). The Family Bereavement Program: Efficacy evaluation of a theory-based prevention program for parentally bereaved children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 587–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., Hintz, N. R., Sullivan, T. K., & Mannes, M. (2001). The role of neighborhood and community in building developmental assets for children and youth: A national study of social norms among American adults. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 703–727.Google Scholar
  187. *Schaps, E., Moskowitz, J. M., Condon, J. W., & Malvin, J. (1984). A process and outcome evaluation of an affective teacher training primary prevention program. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 29, 35–64.Google Scholar
  188. *Schinke, S. P., Cole, K. C., & Poulin, S. R. (2000). Enhancing the educational achievement of at-risk youth. Prevention Science, 1, 51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. *Schinke, S. P., Orlandi, M. A., & Cole, K. C. (1992). Boys & girls clubs in public housing developments: Prevention services for youth at risk. Journal of Community Psychology, OSAP Special Issue, 118–128.Google Scholar
  190. *Schultz, C. L., & Nystul, M. S. (1980). Mother–child interaction behavior as an outcome of theoretical models of parent group education. Journal of Individual Psychology, 36, 3–15.Google Scholar
  191. Seidman, E. (1988). Back to the future, community psychology: Unfolding a theory of social intervention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 3–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. *Shapiro, J. P., Burgoon, J. D., Welker, C. J., & Clough, J. B. (2002). Evaluation of the Peacemaker’s Program: School-based violence prevention for students in grades four through eight. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 87–100.Google Scholar
  193. *Sharma, M., Petosa, R., & Heaney, C. A. (1999). Evaluation of a brief intervention based on social cognitive theory to develop problem-solving skills among sixth-grade children. Health Education and Behavior, 26, 465–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. *Sharpe, T. L., Brown, M., & Crider, K. (1995). The effects of a sportsmanship curriculum intervention on generalized positive social behavior of urban elementary school students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 401–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Shepard, J., & Carlson, J. S. (2003). An empirical evaluation of school-based prevention programs that involve parents. Psychology in the Schools, 40, 641–656.Google Scholar
  196. *Shochet, I. M., Dadds, M. R., Holland, D., Whitefield, K., Harnett, P. H., & Osgarby, S. M. (2001). The efficacy of a universal school-based program to prevent adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 303–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. *Simon, D. J. (1981). The effect of a social skills training program on the level of self-awareness in early adolescence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  198. Simons-Morton, B. G., Parcel, G. S., & O’Mara, N. M. (1988). Implementing organizational changes to promote healthful diet and physical activity at school. Health Education Quarterly, 15, 115–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Simovska, V. (2004). Student participation—simulation or reality? A vignette from the Macedonian network of health promoting schools. Health Education, 104, 163–173.Google Scholar
  200. *Smith, M. K. (1992). Developing responsible behavior with first-grade children through mother–child communication training. Doctoral dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  201. *Smith, P. K., & Sharp, S. (1994). School bullying: Insights and perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  202. *Sobol, D. A. (2000). An adolescent-parent conflict resolution skills training program for ethnically diverse families. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  203. *Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Watson, M., Schaps, E., & Lewis, C. (2000). A six-district study of educational change: Direct and mediated effects of the Child Development Project. Social Psychology of Education, 4, 3–51.Google Scholar
  204. *Solomon, D., Watson, M. S., Delucchi, K. L., Schaps, E., & Battistich, V. (1988). Enhancing children’s prosocial behavior in the classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 25, 527–555.Google Scholar
  205. *Spoth, R., Guyll, M., Chao, W., & Molgaard, V. (2003). Exploratory study of a preventive intervention with general population African American families. Journal of Early Adolescence, 23, 435–468.Google Scholar
  206. *Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Lepper, H. (1999). Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: One-and-two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 103–111.Google Scholar
  207. *Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Shin, C. (1998). Direct and indirect latent-variable parenting outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: Extending a public health-oriented research base. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 385–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. *Spoth, R., Redmond, C., & Shin, C. (2001). Randomized trial of brief family interventions for general populations: Adolescents substance use outcomes 4 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 627–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. *Spoth, R. L., Redmond, C., Trudeau, L., & Shin, C. (2002). Longitudinal substance initiation outcomes for a universal preventive intervention combining family and school programs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 129–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. *Sprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D., & Shannon, T. (2001). Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on key indicators of school safety and discipline. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 495–511.Google Scholar
  211. *Sprinthall, N. A., & Scott, J. R. (1989). Promoting psychological development, math achievement, and success attribution of female students through deliberate psychological education. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 36, 440–446.Google Scholar
  212. *St. Pierre, T. L., Mark, M. M., Kaltreider, D. L., & Campbell, B. (2001). Boys and Girls Clubs and school collaborations: A longitudinal study of a multicomponent substance abuse prevention program for high-risk elementary school children. Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 87–106.Google Scholar
  213. *Stafford, J., Boyd, B., & Lindner, J. R. (2003). Community service versus service-learning: Which is best for 4-H? Journal of Extension, 41, 1–25.Google Scholar
  214. *Stafford, W. B., & Hill, J. D. (1989). Planned program to foster positive self-concepts in kindergarten children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 24, 47–57.Google Scholar
  215. *Stanar, C. R., Gordon, D. A., & Carlston, D. (2003). Reducing family violence: Use of an interactive parenting skills CD-ROM. Unpublished manuscript, Ohio University.Google Scholar
  216. *Stanley, S. F. (1978). Family education to enhance the moral atmosphere of the family and the moral development of adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, 110–118.Google Scholar
  217. *Stephenson, D. (1979). Evaluation of the Twin Falls Primary Positive Action Program 1978–1979. Unpublished report, College of Southern Idaho.Google Scholar
  218. *Stevens, V., Van Oost, P., & Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2000). The effects of an anti-bullying intervention programme on peers’ attitudes and behaviour. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 21–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. *Stolberg, A. L., & Garrison, K. M. (1985). Evaluating a primary prevention program for children of divorce. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 111–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. *Stolberg, A. L., & Mahler, J. (1994). Enhancing treatment gains in a school-based intervention for children of divorce through skill training, parental involvement, and transfer procedures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 147–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. *Switzer, G. E., Simmons, R. G., Dew, M. A., Regalski, J. M., & Wang, C. (1995). The effect of a school-based helper program on adolescent self-image, attitudes, and behavior. Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 429–455.Google Scholar
  222. *Tavormina, J. B. (1975). Relative effectiveness of behavioral and reflective group counseling with parents of mentally retarded children. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 43, 22–31.Google Scholar
  223. *Taylor, C. A., Liang, B., Tracy, A. J., Williams, L. M., & Seigle, P. (2002). Gender differences in middle school adjustment, physical fighting, and social skills: Evaluation of a social competency program. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 23, 259–272.Google Scholar
  224. *The Center for Evaluation and Research with Children and Adolescents. (1999). The impact of the Great Body Shop on student health risk behaviors and other risk and protective factors using the Minnesota Student Survey: An evaluation report to the children’s health market. Boston, MA: The Center for Evaluation and Research with Children and Adolescents.Google Scholar
  225. *Thompson, D. G., & Hudson, G. R. (1982). Values clarification and behavioral group counseling with ninth-grade boys in a residential school. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 394–399.Google Scholar
  226. Tobler, N. S., Roona, M. R., Ochshorn, P., Marshall, D. G., Streke, A. V., & Stackpole, K. M. (2000). School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 275–336.Google Scholar
  227. Tseng, V., Chesir-Teran, D., Becker-Klein, R., Chan, M. L., Duran, V., Roberts, A. et al. (2002). Promotion of social change: A conceptual framework. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 401–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. *Tucker, C. M., & Herman, K. C. (2002). Using culturally sensitive theories and research to meet the academic needs of low-income African American children. American Psychologist, 57, 762–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. *Turner, S., & Scherman, A. (1996). Big brothers: Impact on little brothers’ self-concepts and behaviors. Adolescence, 31, 875–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. *Twemlow, S., Fonagy, P., Sacco, F., Gies, M., Evans, R., & Ewbank, R. (2001). Creating a peaceful school learning environment: A controlled study of an elementary school intervention to reduce violence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 808–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. *Van Lier, P. A. C., Muthen, B. O., Van der Sar, R. M., & Crijnen, A. A. M. Preventing disruptive behavior in children: Program effects. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  232. *Vincent, V., & Guinn, R. (2001). Effectiveness of a Colonia educational intervention. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 23, 229–238.Google Scholar
  233. *Waksman, S. A. (1984). A controlled evaluation of assertion training with adolescents. Adolescence, 74, 278–282.Google Scholar
  234. *Wang, J., Greathouse, B., & Falcinella, V. M. (1997). An empirical assessment of self-esteem enhancement in a CHALLENGE service-learning program. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  235. *Watson, M., Battistich, V., & Solomon, D. (1997). Enhancing students’ social and ethical development in schools: An intervention program and its effects. International Journal of Educational Research, 27, 571–586.Google Scholar
  236. *Weinstein, R. S., Soulé, C. R., Collins, F., Cone, J., Mehlhorn, M., & Simontacchi, K. (1991). Expectations and high school change: Teacher-researcher collaboration to prevent school failure. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 333–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. *Weisman, S. A., Soulé, D. A., & Womer, S. C. (2001). Maryland After School Community Grant Program report on the 1999–2000 school year evaluation of the phase 1 after-school programs. University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  238. *Weisman, S. A., Womer, S. C., Kellstrom, M., Bryner, S., Kahler, A., & Slocum, L. A. (2003). Maryland After School Grant Program part 1: Report on the 2001–2002 school year evaluation of the phase 3 after school programs. University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  239. *Weissberg, R. P., & Caplan, M. (1994). Promoting social competence and preventing antisocial behavior in young urban adolescents. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  240. Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Taylor, R. D., Dynmicki, A. B., & O'Brien, M. U. (submitted for publication). Promoting social and emotional learning enhances school success: Implications of a meta-anaysis.Google Scholar
  241. *Weissberg, R. P., Gesten, E. L., Carnrike, C. L., Toro, P. A., Rapkin, B. D., Davidson E. et al. (1981). Social problem-solving skills training: A competence-building intervention with second- to fourth-grade children. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 411–423.Google Scholar
  242. Weissberg, R. P., & Greenberg, M. T. (1998). School and community competence-enhancement and prevention programs. In W. Damon (Series Editor) and I. E. Siegel & L. A. Renninger (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. 877–954). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  243. Weissberg, R. P., Kumpfer, K., & Seligman, M. E. P. (Eds.). (2003). Prevention that works for children and youth: An introduction. American Psychologist, 58, 425–432.Google Scholar
  244. *Welch, F. C., & Dolly, J. (1980). A systematic evaluation of Glasser’s techniques. Psychology in the Schools, 17, 385–389.Google Scholar
  245. *Westover, S. R. (1991). An evaluation of a parenting program designed to facilitate children’s post-divorce adjustment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe .Google Scholar
  246. *Williams, R. M. (1993). The effects of required community service on the process of developing responsibility in suburban youth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  247. Wilson, D. B., Gottfredson, D. C., & Najaka, S. S. (2001). School-based prevention of problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 17, 247–272.Google Scholar
  248. *Wolchick, S. A., West, S. G., Westover, S., Sandler, I. N., Martin, A., Lustig J. et al. (1993). The Children of Divorce Parenting Intervention: Outcome evaluation of an empirically based program. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 293–331.Google Scholar
  249. *Wolfe, D. A., Wekerle, C., Scott, K., Straatman, A. L., Grasley, C., & Reitzel-Jaffe, D. (2003). Dating violence prevention with at-risk youth: A controlled outcome evaluation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 279–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. *Woodruff, C. M., Gordon, D. A., & Lobo, T. R. (2003). Reaching high-risk families through home-based parent training: A comparison of interactive CD-ROM and self-help parenting programs. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  251. *Zimmerman, M. A., Bingenheimer, J. B., & Notaro, P. C. (2002). Natural mentors and adolescent resiliency: A study with urban youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 221–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg., H. J. (Eds.). (2004). Building academic success on social and emotional learning What does the research say? New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph A. Durlak
    • 1
  • Rebecca D. Taylor
    • 2
  • Kei Kawashima
    • 1
  • Molly K. Pachan
    • 1
  • Emily P. DuPre
    • 1
  • Christine I. Celio
    • 1
  • Sasha R. Berger
    • 1
  • Allison B. Dymnicki
    • 2
  • Roger P. Weissberg
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLoyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Collaborative for AcademicSocial and Emotional LearningChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations