Advertisement

Systematic review of spell-checkers for highly inflectional languages

  • Shashank SinghEmail author
  • Shailendra Singh
Article
  • 81 Downloads

Abstract

Performance of any word processor, search engine, social media relies heavily on the spell-checkers, grammar checkers etc. Spell-checkers are the language tools which break down the text to check the spelling errors. It cautions the user if there is any unintentional misspelling occurred in the text. In the area of spell-checking, we still lack an exhaustive study that covers aspects like strengths, limitations, handled errors, performance along with the evaluation parameters. In literature, spell-checkers for different languages are available and each one possesses similar characteristics however, have a different design. This study follows the guidelines of systematic literature review and applies it to the field of spell-checking. The steps of the systematic review are employed on 130 selected articles published in leading journals, premier conferences and workshops in the field of spell-checking of different inflectional languages. These steps include framing of the research questions, selection of research articles, inclusion/exclusion criteria and the extraction of the relevant information from the selected research articles. The literature about spell-checking is divided into key sub-areas according to the languages. Each sub-area is then described based on the technique being used. In this study, various articles are analyzed on certain criteria to reach the conclusion. This article suggests how the techniques from the other domains like morphology, part-of-speech, chunking, stemming, hash-table etc. can be used in development of spell-checkers. It also highlights the major challenges faced by researchers along with the future area of research in the field of spell-checking.

Keywords

Spelling Spell-check Non-word errors Real-word errors Dictionary lookup Edit-distance Recurrent neural network (RNN) 

Abbreviations

FSM

Finite state machine

DLM

Dictionary lookup method

MA

Morphological analysis

ED

Edit distance

MED

Minimum edit distance

US

Unicode splitting

cbLSTM

Character-based longest short term memory

SM

Soundex method

LED

Levenstein edit distance

CS

Confusion set

rMED

Reverse minimum edit distance

DDLM

Direct dictionary lookup method

EDM

Edit distance method

PEM

Phonetic encoding method

FSR

Finite state representation

STM

State table method

FSA

Finite state automata

PAMC

Partition around medoid clustering

DMEE

Double metaphone encoding

WF

Word frequency

S&SS

Sound and shape similarity

rEDM

Reverse edit distance method

HT

Hash table

TBA

Tree-based algorithm

POS

Parts of speech

HMM

Hidden Markov model

GUI

Graphical user interface

FST

Finite state transition

UWH

Unknown word handling

UPH

Unknown proper noun handling

POS

Parts of speech

API

Application programming interface

CW

Constituent word

MBLP

Memory based language model

FSTM

Finite state transition model

DA

Dictionary approach

CC

Canti check

CSO

Crowd sourcing

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the reviewers for their insightful comments. The authors would also like to thank Ministry of Electronics and IT, Government of INDIA, for providing fellowship under Grant Number: PhD-MLA-4 (69)/2015-16 (Visvesvaraya PhD Scheme for Electronics and IT) to pursue Ph.D. work.

References

  1. Abdullah M, Islam Z, Khan M (2007) Error-tolerant finite-state recognizer and string pattern similarity based spelling-checker for Bangla. In: Proceeding of 5th international conference on natural language processing (ICON)Google Scholar
  2. Abeera VP, Aparna S, Rekha RU, Kumar MA, Dhanalakshmi V (2012) Morphological analyzer for Malayalam. In: Data engineering and management, pp 252–254Google Scholar
  3. Allen JD et al (2012) The unicode standard, vol 3. Mountain view, CAGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambili T, Panchami KS, Subash N (2016) Automatic error detection and correction in Malayalam. IJSTE Int J Sci Technol Eng 3(02):92–96Google Scholar
  5. Angell RC, Freund GE, Willett P (1983) Automatic spelling correction using a tri-gram similarity measure. Inf Process Manag 19(4):255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badugu S (2014) Morphology based POS tagging on Telugu. Int J Comput Sci Issues 11(1):181–187Google Scholar
  7. Balabantaray C, Sahoo B, Swain M, Sahoo K (2012) IIIT-Bh FIRE 2012 submission: MET Track Odia, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  8. Banks T (2008) Strategies, foreign language larning difficulaties and teching. Dominican University of California, San RafaelGoogle Scholar
  9. Bansal A, Banerjee E, Jha GN (2013) Corpora creation for Indian language technologies—The ILCI Project. In: The 6th proceedings of language technology conference (LTC ‘13)Google Scholar
  10. Bhatti Z, Ismaili IA (2016) Phonetic-based Sindhi spell-checker system using a hybrid model. Digit Scholarsh Humanit 31(2):264–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatti Z, Ismaili IA, Shaikh AA, Javaid W (2012) Spelling error trends and patterns in Sindhi. J Emerg Trends Comput Inf Sci 3(10):1435–1439Google Scholar
  12. Bhatti Z, Ismaili IA, Soomro WJ, Hakro DN (2014) Word segmentation model for Sindhi text. Am J Comput Res Repos 2(1):1–7Google Scholar
  13. Bhowmik K (2014) Development of a word-based spell-checker for Bangla language. Military Institute of Science and Technology, United International University, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  14. Borah PP, Talukdar G, Baruah A (2014) Assamese word sense disambiguation using supervised learning. In: International conference on contemporary computing and informatics (IC3I). IEEE, pp 946–950Google Scholar
  15. Bruno M, Silva MJ (2004) Spelling correction for search engine queries. In: Advanced natural language processing. Springer, Berlin, pp 372–383Google Scholar
  16. Budanitsky A, Hirst G (2006) Evaluating wordnet-based measures of lexical semantic relatedness. Comput Linguist 32(1):13–47zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Budgen D, Brereton P (2006) Performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering. In: ICSE’06 Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering, pp 1051–1052Google Scholar
  18. Cavnar WB, Trenkle JM (1994) N-gram-based text categorization. In: Proceedings of SDAIR-94, 3rd annual symposium on document analysis and information retrieval, pp 161–175Google Scholar
  19. Chakrabarti B (1994) A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. K.P. Bagchi & Co., KolkataGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaudhuri BB (2001) Reversed word dictionary and phonetically similar word grouping based spell-checker to Bangla text. In: Proceeding of LESAL Workshop, MumbaiGoogle Scholar
  21. Chaudhuri BB (2002) Towards Indian language spell-checker design. In: Proceedings—language engineering conference, LEC 2002, pp 139–146Google Scholar
  22. Choudhury R, Deb N, Kashyap K (2019) Context sensitive spelling checker for Assamese language. In: Kalita J, Balas V, Borah S, Pradhan R (eds) Recent developments in machine learning and data analytics. Springer, Singapore, pp 177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cordeiro de Amorim R, Zampieri M (2013) Recent advances in natural language processing. In: IEEE international conference on recent advances in natural language processing, pp 172–178Google Scholar
  24. Dahar IA, Abbas F, Rajput U, Hussain A, Azhar F (2018) An efficient Sindhi spelling checker for microsoft word. Int J Comput Sci Netw Secur 18(5):144–150Google Scholar
  25. Damerau FJ (1964) A technique for computer detection and correction of spelling errors. Commun ACM 7(3):171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Das M, Borgohain S, Gogoi J, Nair SB (2002a) Design and implementation of a spell-checker for Assamese. In: Language engineering conference, Proceedings IEEE, pp 156–162Google Scholar
  27. Das M, Borgohain S, Gogoi J (2002b) Design and implementation of a spell-checker for Assamese. In: Language engineering conference, proceedings IEEE, pp 156–162Google Scholar
  28. Das M, Borgohain S, Gogoi J, Nair SB (2002c) Design and implementation of a spell-checker for Assamese. In: Proceedings—language engineering conference, LEC 2002, pp 156–162Google Scholar
  29. Daud A, Khan W, Che D (2016) Urdu language processing: a survey. Artif Intell Rev 47(3):279–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dhanabalan T, Parthasarathi R, Geetha TV (2003) Tamil spell-checker. In: 6th Tamil internet conference, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, pp 18–27Google Scholar
  31. Dhanju KS, Lehal GS, Saini TS, Kaur A (2015) Design and implementation of Punjabi spell-checker. Int J Sci Technol 8(27):1–12Google Scholar
  32. Dongre VJ, Mankar VH (2010) A review of research on Devnagari character recognition. Int J Comput Appl 12(2):8–15Google Scholar
  33. Dowlagar S, Mamidi R (2015) A semi supervised dialog act tagging for Telugu. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on natural language processing, pp 376–383Google Scholar
  34. Etoori P, Chinnakotla M, Mamidi R (2018) Automatic spelling correction for resource-scarce languages using deep learning. In: Proceeding of ACL 2018, Student research workshop, pp 146–152Google Scholar
  35. Fossati F, Di Eugenio B (2007) I saw TREE trees in the park: how to correct real-word spelling mistakes. In: LREC, pp 896–901Google Scholar
  36. Ganfure GO, Midekso D (2014) Design and implementation of morphology based spell-checker. Int J Sci Technol Res 3(12):118–125Google Scholar
  37. Ghafour HHA, El-bastawissy A, Heggazy AFA (2011) AEDA : Arabic edit distance algorithm towards a new approach for Arabic name matching. In: IEEE, international conference on computer engineering and systems, pp 307–311Google Scholar
  38. Gokcay E, Gokcay D (1995) Combining statistics and heuristics for language identification. In: Proceedings of the 4th annual symposium on document analysis and information retrievalGoogle Scholar
  39. Gottron T, Lipka N (2010) A comparison of language identification approaches on short, query-style texts. Lecture notes in computer science, pp 611–614Google Scholar
  40. Goyal V, Lehal GS (2010) Automatic standardization of spelling variations of Hindi text. In: International conference on computer and communication technology ICCCT 2010, pp 764–767Google Scholar
  41. Gupta V (2014) Automatic stemming of words for Punjabi. In: Advances in signal processing and intelligent recognition systems, pp 73–84Google Scholar
  42. Gupta P, Goyal V (2009) Implementation of rule-based algorithm for Sandhi-Vicheda of compound Hindi words. Int J Comput Sci Issues 3:45–49Google Scholar
  43. Gupta V, Lehal GS (2011) Punjabi language stemmer for nouns and proper names. In: Proceedings of the 2nd workshop on South and Southeast Asian Natural Language Processing (WSSANLP), IJCNLP 2011, pp 35–39Google Scholar
  44. Gupta V, Lehal GS (2019) Complete pre processing phase of Punjabi text extractive summarization system. In: Proceedings of COLING 2012: demonstration papers, pp 199–206Google Scholar
  45. Harrison GL, Goegan LD, Jalbert R, Mcmanus K, Sinclair K, Spurling J (2016) Predictors of spelling and writing skills in first and second language learners. Read Writ 29(1):69–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hassan A, Amin MR, Al Azad AK, Mohammed N (2017) Sentiment analysis on Bangla and Romanized Bangla text using deep recurrent models. In: IWCI 2016—2016 international workshop on computational intelligence, pp 51–56Google Scholar
  47. Hayes B, Lahiri A (1991) Bengali international phonology. Nat Lang Linguist Theory 9(1):47–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hema PH, Sunitha C (2016) Malayalam spell-checker using N-gram method. In: Computational intelligence in data mining-advances in intelligent systems and computing, vol 1, pp 217–225Google Scholar
  49. Heshaam F (2010) Detection and correction of real-word spelling errors in Persian language. In: IEEE-international conference on natural language processing and knowledge engineering (NLP-KE)Google Scholar
  50. Hoque T, Kaykobad M (2002) Coding system for Bangla spell-checker. In: 5th international conference on computer and information technology, pp 186–190Google Scholar
  51. Huang A (2008) Similarity measures for text document clustering. In: Proceedings of the 6th New Zealand computer science research student conference (NZCSRSC2008)Google Scholar
  52. Humayoun M, Ranta A (2014) Developing Punjabi morphology, corpus and lexicon. In: Proceedings of the 24th Pacific Asia conference on language, information and computationGoogle Scholar
  53. Hussain I, Saharia N, Sharma U (2011) Development of assamese wordnet. In: Nath B, Sharma U, Bhattacharyya DK (eds) Machine intelligence: recent advances. Narosa Publishing House, ISBN-978-81-8487-140-1Google Scholar
  54. Iqbal S, Anwar W, Bajwa UI, Rehman Z (2013) Urdu spell-checking: reverse edit distance approach. In: Proceedings of the 4th workshop on South and Southeast Asian Natural Language Processing, pp 58–65Google Scholar
  55. Islam A, Inkpen D (2009) Real-word spelling correction using google web 1T 3-grams. In: EMNLP’09, conference on empirical methods in natural language processing, pp 1241–1249Google Scholar
  56. Islam MZ, Uddin M, Khan M (2007) A light weight stemmer for Bengali and its use in spelling checker. In: Proceedings of international conference on digital communication and computer applications (DCCA), pp 19–23Google Scholar
  57. Jain A, Jain M (2014) Detection and correction of non-word spelling errors in Hindi language. In: International conference on data mining and intelligent computing (ICDMIC)Google Scholar
  58. Jain U, Kaur J (2015) Text chunker for Punjabi. Int J Curr Eng Technol 5(5):3349–3353Google Scholar
  59. Jananie S, Sarveswaran K (2014) Hybrid approach for spell-checking of Tamil language. In: Proceedings of the Peradeniya University, International Research Session, vol 18, no 1Google Scholar
  60. Jindal S (2017) Building English–Punjabi parallel corpus for machine translation. Int J Comput Appl 180(8):26–29Google Scholar
  61. Justin Z, Dart P (1995) Finding approximate matches in large lexicons. Softw Pract Exp 25(3):331–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kabeer R, Idicula SM (2014) Text summarization for Malayalam documents—an experience. In: Proceedings of international conference on data science and engineering, ICDSE 2014, pp 145–150Google Scholar
  63. Kashyap K, Sarma H, Sarma SK (2015) Luitspell: development of an Assamese language spell-checker for open office writer. Eur J Adv Eng Technol 2(5):135–138Google Scholar
  64. Kashyap L, Joshi SR, Bhattacharyya P (2017) Insights on Hindi WordNet coming from the IndoWordNet. In: The Wordnet in Indian languages, pp 19–43Google Scholar
  65. Kaur H, Kaur G, Kaur M (2015) Punjabi spell-checker using dictionary clustering. Int J Sci Eng Technol Res 4(7):2369–2374Google Scholar
  66. Keselj V, Peng F, Cercone N, Thomas C (2003) N-gram based author profiles for authorship attribution. In: Proceedings of the conference of the Pacific association for computational linguistics (PACLING)Google Scholar
  67. Khan NH, Saha GC (2014) Checking the correctness of Bangla words using N-gram. Int J Comput Appl 89(11):1–3Google Scholar
  68. Kleenankandy J (2014) Implementation of Sandhi-rule based compound word generator for Malayalam. In: Proceedings of 4th international conference on advances in computing and communications, ICACC 2014, pp 134–137Google Scholar
  69. Kukich K (1992) Technique for automatically correcting words in text. ACM Comput Surv 24(4):377–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumar SS, Suma S, Sneha N (2017) Spell-checker for Kannada OCR. Int Digit Libr Technol Res 1(4):1–12Google Scholar
  71. Lakshmi K, Babu T (2018) A new hybrid algorithm for Telugu word retrieval and recognition. Int J Intell Eng Syst 11(4):117–127Google Scholar
  72. Lawaye AA, Purkayastha BS (2016) Design and implementation of spell-checker for Kashmiri. Int J Sci Res 5(7):199–202Google Scholar
  73. Lehal GS (2007) Design and implementation of Punjabi spell-checker. Int J Syst Cybern Inform 3(8):70–75Google Scholar
  74. Levenshtein VI (1966) Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals. Sov Phys Dokl 10(8):707–710MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  75. Mahar JA, Shaikh H, Memon GQ (2012) A model for Sindhi text segmentation in word tokens. Sindh Univ Res J SUR J (Sci Ser) 44(1):43–48Google Scholar
  76. Mala C, Parameshwari K, Rao GUM, Kulkarni AP (2012) Telugu spell-checker. In: International Telugu internet conference proceedings, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  77. Mandal P, Hossain BMM (2017a) Clustering-based Bangla Spell-checker. In: IEEE international conference on imaging, vision and pattern recognition (icIVPR)Google Scholar
  78. Mandal P, Hossain BMM (2017b) A systematic literature review on spell-checkers for Bangla language. Int J Mod Educ Comput Sci 9(6):40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Manohar N, Lekshmipriya PT, Jayan V, Bhadran VK (2015) Spell-checker for Malayalam using finite state transition models. In: IEEE recent advances in intelligent computational systems, RAICS 2015, pp 157–161Google Scholar
  80. Mateen A, Malik MK, Nawaz Z, Danish HM, Siddiqui MH (2017) A hybrid stemmer of Punjabi Shahmukhi script. Int J Comput Sci Netw Secur 17(8):90–97Google Scholar
  81. Mishra D, Venugopalan M, Gupta D (2016) Context-specific lexicon for Hindi reviews. In: 6th international conference on advances in computing and communications, ICACC 2016, vol 93, pp 554–563Google Scholar
  82. Mittal S, Sethi NS, Sharma SK (2014) Part of speech tagging of Punjabi language using N gram model. Int J Comput Appl 100(19):20–23Google Scholar
  83. Mohapatra DD (2018) A sketch of Odia morphology. Glob J Res Anal 7(4):80–81Google Scholar
  84. Mon AM (2012) Spell-checker for Myanmar language. In: International conference on information retrieval and knowledge management (CAMP). IEEE, pp 12–16Google Scholar
  85. Murthy KN (2001) Computer processing of Kannada language. Workshop at Kannada University, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  86. Mustafa SH (2005) Character contiguity in N -gram-based word matching: the case for Arabic text searching. Inf Process Manag 41:819–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Naseem T (2004) A hybrid approach for Urdu spell-checking. National University of Computer & Emerging SciencesGoogle Scholar
  88. Naseem T, Hussain S (2007) A novel approach for ranking spelling error corrections for Urdu. Lang Resour Eval 41(2):117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nielsen J (1999) Internet-based spelling checker dictionary system with automatic updatingGoogle Scholar
  90. Nisha M, Reji Rahmath K, Rekha Raj CT, Reghu Raj PC (2015) Malayalam morphological analysis using MBLP approach. In: Proceedings of international conference on soft-computing and network security, ICSNS 2015Google Scholar
  91. Pareek G, Modi D (2016) Feature extraction in Hindi text summarization. Ski Res J 6(2):14–19Google Scholar
  92. Peterson JL (1980) Computer programs for detecting and correcting spelling errors. Commun ACM 23(12):676–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Prathibha RJ, Padma MC (2016) Design of morphological analyzer for Kannada inflectional words using hybrid approach. Int J Comput Linguist Res 7(4):133–161Google Scholar
  94. Pratip S, Chaudhuri BB (2013) A simple real-word error detection and correction using local word bigram and trigram. In: Proceedings of the 25th conference on computational linguistics and speech processing (ROCLING 2013), pp 211–220Google Scholar
  95. Puri R, Bedi RPS, Goyal V (2015) Punjabi stemmer using Punjabi wordnet database. Indian J Sci Technol 8(27):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rahman MU (2015) Towards Sindhi corpus construction. In: Conference on language and technology, pp 1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rahutomo F, Kitasuka T, Aritsugi M (2012) Semantic cosine similarity. In: 7th international student conference on advanced science and technology ICASTGoogle Scholar
  98. Rajashekara Murthy S, Akshatha AN, Upadhyaya CG, Ramakanth Kumar P (2017) Kannada spell-checker with Sandhi splitter. In: International conference on advances in computing, communications and informatics, ICACCI 2017, pp 950–956Google Scholar
  99. Rajashekara Murthy S, Madi V, Sachin D, Ramakanth PK (2012) A non-word Kannada spell-checker using morphological analyzer and dictionary lookup method. Int J Eng Sci Emerg Technol 2(2):43–52Google Scholar
  100. Rama T, Sowmya V (2018) A dependency treebank for Telugu. In: Proceedings of the 16th international workshop on treebanks and linguistics theories, pp 119–128Google Scholar
  101. Robertson AM, Willet P (1998) Applications of N-grams in textual information systems. J Doc 54(1):48–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rout Y, Santi PK, Subudhi S, Sahu B (2013) An approach for designing Odia spell-checker. In: National conference on recent advances on business intelligence & data mining (RABIDM 2013), pp 1–7Google Scholar
  103. Saharia N (2011) A first step towards parsing of Assamese text. Spec Vol Probl Parsing Indian Lang 11(5):30–34Google Scholar
  104. Saharia N, Konwar KM (2012) LiuitPad: a fully unicode compatible Assamese writing software. In: Proceedings of the 2nd workshop an advances in text input methods (WTIM 2) COLLING 2012, pp 79–88Google Scholar
  105. Saharia N, Das D, Sharma U, Kalita J (2009) Part of speech tagger for Assamese text. In: Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP conference short papers, pp 33–36Google Scholar
  106. Saharia N, Sharma U, Kalita J (2012) Analysis and evaluation of stemming algorithms : a case study with Assamese. In: International conference on advances in computing, communications and informatics, ICACCI 2012, pp 842–846Google Scholar
  107. Sahoo K, Vidyasagar VE (2003) Kannada WordNet—a lexical database. In: Conference on convergent technologies for Asia-Pacific Region (TENCON 2003), vol 4, pp 1352–1356Google Scholar
  108. Sakuntharaj R, Mahesan S (2016) A novel hybrid approach to detect and correct spelling in Tamil text. In: International conference on information and automation for sustainability: interoperable sustainable smart systems for next generation, ICIAFS 2016. IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  109. Sakuntharaj R, Mahesan S (2017) Use of a novel hash-table for speeding-up suggestions for misspelt Tamil words. In: International conference on industrial and information systems (ICIIS) IEEE, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  110. Santosh T, Sulochana KG, Kumar RR (2002) Malayalam spell-checker. In: Proceedings of the international conference on universal knowledge and languageGoogle Scholar
  111. Saranya SK (2008) Morphological analyzer for Malayalam verbs. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita School of Engineering, CoimbatoreGoogle Scholar
  112. Sarma P (2017) An approach to prepare lexicons of Assamese text for unit selection concatenation TTS. Int J Emerg Trends Sci Technol 4(8):5631–5637Google Scholar
  113. Sarma SK, Medhi R, Gogoi M, Saikia U (2010) Foundation and structure of developing an Assamese wordnet. In: Proceedings of 5th international conference of the global WordNet AssociationGoogle Scholar
  114. Sarmah J, Barman AK, Sharma SK (2013) Automatic Assamese text categorization using wordnet. In: International conference of advances in computing, communications and informatics IEEE, pp 85–89Google Scholar
  115. Segar J, Sarveswaran K (2015) Contextual spell-checking for Tamil language. In: 14th Tamil internet conference, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  116. Sekhar N, Pushpak D, Jyoti B (2017) The WordNet in Indian Languages. Springer Nature, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  117. Sethi DP (2014) A survey on Odia computational morphology. Int J Adv Res Comput Eng Technol 3(3):623–625Google Scholar
  118. Shaalan K, Allam A, Gomah A (2003) Towards automatic spell-checking for Arabic. In: Proceedings of the 4th conference on language engineering, Egyptian Society of language engineering (ELSE), Egypt, pp 240–247Google Scholar
  119. Shah ZA, Mashori GM (2013) Oxford English-Sindhi dictionary: a critical study in lexicography. ELF Annu Res J 13:37–46Google Scholar
  120. Shambhavi BR, Ramakanth Kumar P, Srividya K, Jyothi BJ, Kundargi S, Shastri G (2011) Kannada morphological analyser and generator using trie. Int J Comput Sci Netw Secur 11(1):112–116Google Scholar
  121. Sheykholeslam MH, Minaei-Bidgoli B, Juzi H (2013) A framework for spelling correction in Persian language using noisy channel model. In: LREC, pp 58–65Google Scholar
  122. Singh A (2016) Review for dialects in Punjabi language. Int J Innov Adv Comput Sci 5(8):25–30Google Scholar
  123. Singh J, Singh G, Singh R, Singh P (2018) Morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis of Punjabi text using deep learning classification. J King Saud Univ Comput Inf Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2018.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sinha RMK, Singh KS (1984) A programme for correction of single spelling errors in Hindi words. IETE J Res 30(6):249–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Solak A (1993) Design and implementation of a spelling checker for Turkish. Institute of Engineering & Sciences, Bilkent University, AnkaraCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sooraj S, Manjusha K, Anand Kumar M, Soman KP (2018) Deep learning based spell-checker for Malayalam language. J Intell Fuzzy Syst 34(3):1427–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Strnad J (2001) Hindi dictionaries and the Hindi lexicographical corpus. Festschrift Helmut Nespital, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  128. Subhashini R, Kumar VJS (2010) Evaluating the performance of similarity measures used in document clustering and information retrieval. In: IEEE, 1st international conference on integrated intelligent computingGoogle Scholar
  129. Tomovic A, Janicic P, Keselj V (2006) N-gram based classification and unsupervised hierarchical clustering of genome sequences. Comput Methods Program Biomed 81:137–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Uzzaman N, Khan M (2006) A comprehensive Bangla spelling checker. BRAC University, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  131. Varghese ST, Sulochana KG, Kumar RR (2002) Malayalam spell-checker. In: Proceedings of the international conference on universal knowledge and languageGoogle Scholar
  132. Veerappan R, Antony PJ, Saravanan S, Soman KP (2011) A rule-based Kannada morphological analyzer and generator using finite state transducer. Int J Comput Appl 27(10):45–52Google Scholar
  133. Verberne S (2002) Context-sensitive spell-checking based on word trigram probabilitiesGoogle Scholar
  134. Wasala A, Weerasinghe R, Pushpananda R (2010) A data-driven approach to checking and correcting spelling errors in Sinhala. Int J Adv ICT Emerg Reg 03(01):11–24Google Scholar
  135. Wu S, Mamber U (1992) AGREP—a fast approximate pattern matching tool. In: Proceedings of the Winter 1992 USENIX conference San Francisco USA. Berkeley, pp 153–162Google Scholar
  136. Yue T, Briand LC, Labiche Y (2011) A systematic review of transformation approaches between user requirements and analysis models. Requir Eng 16(2):75–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zampieri M, Cordeiro de Amorim R (2014) Between sound and spelling: combining phonetics and clustering algorithms to improve target word recovery. In: International conference on natural language processing, pp 438–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zhang Y, Zhao X (2013) Automatic error detection and correction of text: the state of the art. In: 6th international conference on intelligent networks and intelligent systems, ICINIS, pp 274–277Google Scholar
  139. Zhuang L, Bao T, Zhu X, Wang C, Naoi S (2004) A Chinese OCR spelling check approach based on statistical language models. In: International conference on systems, man and cybernetics, IEEE, vol 5, pp 4727–4732Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringPunjab Engineering College (Deemed to be University)ChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations