Artificial Intelligence Review

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 235–269 | Cite as

Novelty detection in data streams

  • Elaine R. FariaEmail author
  • Isabel J. C. R. Gonçalves
  • André C. P. L. F. de Carvalho
  • João Gama


In massive data analysis, data usually come in streams. In the last years, several studies have investigated novelty detection in these data streams. Different approaches have been proposed and validated in many application domains. A review of the main aspects of these studies can provide useful information to improve the performance of existing approaches, allow their adaptation to new applications and help to identify new important issues to be addresses in future studies. This article presents and analyses different aspects of novelty detection in data streams, like the offline and online phases, the number of classes considered at each phase, the use of ensemble versus a single classifier, supervised and unsupervised approaches for the learning task, information used for decision model update, forgetting mechanisms for outdated concepts, concept drift treatment, how to distinguish noise and outliers from novelty concepts, classification strategies for data with unknown label, and how to deal with recurring classes. This article also describes several applications of novelty detection in data streams investigated in the literature and discuss important challenges and future research directions.


Novelty detection Data streams Survey Classification 



Thanks to European Commission through project MAESTRA (ICT-2013-612944), ERDF through the COMPETE Programme, National Funds through FCT within the project FCOMP - 01-0124-FEDER-022701, and CAPES, CNPq and FAPESP, Brazilian funding agencies.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine R. Faria
    • 1
    Email author
  • Isabel J. C. R. Gonçalves
    • 2
  • André C. P. L. F. de Carvalho
    • 3
  • João Gama
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Computing, Federal University of UberlândiaUberlândiaBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Politécnico de Viana do CasteloViana do CasteloPortugal
  3. 3.Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science (ICMC)University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support (LIAAD-INESC TEC)University of PortoPortoPortugal

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