Intimate Partner Violence Against Transgender Women: Prevalence and Correlates in Lima, Peru (2016–2018)

  • Ellen C. Murphy
  • Eddy R. Segura
  • Jordan E. Lake
  • Leyla Huerta
  • Amaya G. Perez-Brumer
  • Kenneth H. Mayer
  • Sari L. Reisner
  • Javier R. Lama
  • Jesse L. ClarkEmail author
Original Paper


Limited data exists on intimate partner violence (IPV) among transgender women (TW), though global trends suggest IPV is associated with HIV risk in this population. We describe the prevalence of verbal, physical, and/or sexual violence as well as participant- and partner-level correlates of IPV among TW in Lima, Peru. Among 389 respondents, 15.2% reported IPV with one or more of their last three sexual partners: 9.2% verbal, 8.2% physical, and 2.3% sexual violence. Physical and verbal violence were more common with stable partners (aPR 3.46, 95% CI 1.17–10.25, aPR 2.46, 95% CI 1.14–5.28, respectively). Physical violence was associated with condomless receptive anal intercourse (cRAI) (aPR 2.22, 95% CI 1.19–4.13) and partner alcohol use (aPR 4.38, 95% CI 1.56–12.33) while verbal violence correlated with participant inebriation (aPR 4.86, 95% CI 1.63–14.46). Our results link IPV with stable partnerships, alcohol use, and cRAI, suggesting TW in Peru may benefit from multidimensional IPV prevention strategies to foster supportive relationships and reduce HIV transmission.


Intimate partner violence (IPV) Transgender women (TW) Condomless receptive anal intercourse (cRAI) HIV Substance use 


Existen datos limitados sobre la violencia de pareja (IPV) entre las mujeres transgénero (TW), aunque las tendencias globales sugieren que la IPV está asociada con el riesgo de VIH en esta población. Describimos la prevalencia de violencia verbal, física y/o sexual, así como factores asociados a IPV a nivel de participantes y parejas entre TW en Lima, Perú. De 389 encuestadas, el 15.2% reportó IPV con una o más de sus últimas tres parejas sexuales: 9.2% por violencia verbal, 8.2% física y 2.3% sexual. La violencia física y verbal fueron más comunes con parejas estables (aPR 3.46, CI 95%: 1.17-10.25, aPR 2.46, CI 95%: 1.14-5.28, respectivamente). La violencia física se asoció con el coito anal receptivo sin condón (cRAI) (aPR 2.22, CI 95%: 1.19-4.13) y el consumo de alcohol por parte de la pareja (aPR 4.38, CI 95%: 1.56-12.33) mientras que la violencia verbal se correlacionó con la embriaguez de los participantes (aPR 4.86, CI 95%: 1.63-14.46). Nuestros resultados vinculan IPV con asociaciones estables, consumo de alcohol y cRAI, lo que sugiere que las TW en Perú puede beneficiarse de estrategias de prevención de IPV multidimensionales para fomentar relaciones de apoyo y reducir la transmisión del VIH.



We would like to thank the study participants and staff that worked to make this project possible. ECM would also like to acknowledge and thank Faiez K. Saiyed, Vincent B. Ofori, and R. Colby Passaro for their guidance and support throughout the research process. Funding for this work was provided by the US National Institute of Health grants R25 MH087222 and R34 MH105272 to JLC, and K23 AI110532 to JEL and amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, Grant #109071-57-HGMM to JRL.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen C. Murphy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eddy R. Segura
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jordan E. Lake
    • 2
    • 4
  • Leyla Huerta
    • 5
  • Amaya G. Perez-Brumer
    • 6
  • Kenneth H. Mayer
    • 7
  • Sari L. Reisner
    • 7
    • 8
  • Javier R. Lama
    • 9
  • Jesse L. Clark
    • 2
    • 10
    Email author
  1. 1.Wayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  2. 2.South American Program in HIV Prevention Research, David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Escuela de MedicinaUniversidad Peruana de Ciencias AplicadasLimaPeru
  4. 4.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineMcGovern Medical School at UTHealthHoustonUSA
  5. 5.EpicentroLimaPeru
  6. 6.Department of Sociomedical SciencesColumbia Mailman School of Public HealthNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.Fenway Health and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical SchoolThe Fenway InstituteBostonUSA
  8. 8.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  9. 9.Asociacion Civil Impacta Salud y EducacionLimaPeru
  10. 10.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUCLA Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

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