AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 291–303 | Cite as

Development of a Novel Scale to Measure Male Partner Involvement in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya

  • Karen HampandaEmail author
  • Lisa Abuogi
  • Pamela Musoke
  • Maricianah Onono
  • Anna Helova
  • Elizabeth Bukusi
  • Janet Turan
Original Paper


Male partner involvement is an important factor in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Yet, poor conceptualization has hindered optimal assessment of male involvement. We created and evaluated a brief 10-item male partner involvement scale using principal components analysis and scree plots, Cronbach’s alpha, and linear regression with survey data from postpartum women with HIV (n = 200) in Kenya. The scale had a two-factor structure: male encouragement/reminders and active participation. The overall scale and the encouragement/reminders sub-scale displayed strong internal reliability. In the multivariable models, the scales were positively associated with constructive relationship dynamics, HIV status disclosure, and couple HIV testing and counseling, and negatively associated with internalized HIV stigma. The encouragements/reminders sub-scale was also negatively associated with a new HIV diagnosis during pregnancy. This work furthers the conceptualization of male partner involvement in PMTCT and provides a valid measure to assess male involvement as a pathway to better PMTCT outcomes.


PMTCT Pregnant and postpartum women with HIV Peripartum women with HIV Male partner involvement Sub-Saharan Africa Scale development 



This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health under Grant K99MH116735; the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development under Grant R01HD080477; and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease-funded Colorado HIV Research Training Program under Grant 4T32AI007447. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committees and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Relevant institutional review boards at the University of Colorado Denver, University of Alabama Birmingham, and Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) provided ethical approval for the study. Individual consent was obtained by trained Kenyan research assistants who conducted an informed consent process, including a signed consent (or thumbprint) form and an information sheet read aloud in the participant’s preferred language.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Hampanda
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lisa Abuogi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pamela Musoke
    • 4
  • Maricianah Onono
    • 5
  • Anna Helova
    • 4
  • Elizabeth Bukusi
    • 5
  • Janet Turan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Community and Behavioral HealthUniversity of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Center for Global Health, Colorado School of Public HealthUniversity of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical CampusAuroraUSA
  4. 4.School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  5. 5.Center for Microbiology ResearchKenya Medical Research InstituteNairobiKenya

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