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Antiretroviral Concentration in Hair as a Measure for Antiretroviral Medication Adherence: A Systematic Review of Global Literature

  • Quan ZhangEmail author
  • Shan Qiao
  • Xueying Yang
  • Xiaoming Li
Substantive Review

Abstract

This review aims to validate hair antiretroviral concentration (HAC) as a measure for antiretroviral medication adherence. This review included 31 studies that analyzed a total of 11 ARV drugs in four different drug classes. The associations between HAC and non-pharmacokinetic measures were generally lower than the association between HAC and other pharmacokinetic measures: the correlation coefficients (r) ranged from − 0.20 to 0.38 for self-report or pill counts and 0.20 to 0.85 for electronic drug monitoring; HAC and other pharmacokinetic measures were positively correlated with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.20 to 0.72, 0.34 to 0.86, 0.50 to 0.85 for antiretroviral concentration in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and dried blood spots, respectively. HAC was one of the strongest independent predictors of virologic responses. HAC of tenofovir was significantly associated with renal toxicity in large sample studies. This review suggests that HAC is a valid biomarker of antiretroviral medication adherence.

Keywords

Antiretroviral therapy Adherence Hair HIV/AIDS Pre-exposure prophylaxis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Joanne Zwemer for assistance in preparing this review.

Funding

This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Grant (Grant numbers R01HD074221, R21AI122919), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant number 2018B03614), the Humanities and Social Science Foundation of Ministry of Education (Grant number 18YJCZH243) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant number BK20180503).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors because it relies on primary studies.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality (CHQ)University of South Carolina Arnold School of Public HealthColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Pedagogy and Applied Psychology, School of Public AdministrationHohai UniversityNanjingChina

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