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Use of Antiretroviral Drug Testing to Assess the Accuracy of Self-reported Data from HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs

  • Jessica M. Fogel
  • Yinfeng Zhang
  • Philip J. Palumbo
  • Xu Guo
  • William Clarke
  • Autumn Breaud
  • Paul Richardson
  • Estelle Piwowar-Manning
  • Erica L. Hamilton
  • Tran Viet Ha
  • Kostyantyn Dumchev
  • Zubairi Djoerban
  • Irving Hoffman
  • Brett Hanscom
  • William C. Miller
  • Susan H. Eshleman
Original Paper

Abstract

We used antiretroviral (ARV) drug testing to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported data for HIV status and antiretroviral treatment (ART) among people who inject drugs enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. ARV drugs were detected in enrollment samples from 72/482 = 14.9% HIV-infected participants (39/52 = 75.0% who reported being on ART; 33/430 = 7.7% who reported not being on ART). Overall, 213/482 = 44.2% participants indicated that they were not aware of their HIV-positive status prior to study entry; of those, 30 had ARV drugs detected at enrollment, including 15 who also had ARV drugs detected at the screening visit. These participants were likely aware of their HIV-positive status at study entry but did not report this to study staff. This study shows that self-reported data on HIV testing history and ART may not be accurate and that ARV drug testing can help identify persons who are aware of their HIV-positive status and are on ART.

Keywords

HIV ART Self-report PWID Indonesia Ukraine Vietnam 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the HPTN 074 study team and participants for providing the samples and data used in this study. We also thank the laboratory staff who helped with sample management and testing. This work was supported by the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Office of AIDS Research, of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [UM1-AI068613 (Eshleman); UM1-AI068617 (Donnell); and UM1-AI068619 (Cohen/El-Sadr)].

Author Contributions

All of the authors contributed to manuscript preparation and reviewed the manuscript before submission. JMF: Designed the study, analysed data; prepared the manuscript. YZ: Assisted with data analysis and presentation. PJP: Assisted with data analysis and presentation. XG: HPTN 074 data analyst; performed statistical analysis. WC: Provided scientific oversight for antiretroviral drug testing. AB: Performed antiretroviral drug testing. PR: HPTN Laboratory Center QAQC Representative for HPTN 074; responsible for laboratory activities in HPTN 074. EPM: HPTN Laboratory Center QAQC Representative for HPTN 074; responsible for laboratory activities in HPTN 074. ELH: Study Coordinator for HPTN 074. TVH: HPTN 074 Site PI. KD: HPTN 074 Site PI. ZD: HPTN 074 Site PI. IH: HPTN 074 Protocol Co-Chair. BH: HPTN 074 Statistician. WCM: HPTN 074 Protocol Chair. SHE: HPTN 074 Virologist; designed the study, analysed data; prepared the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None of the authors has a financial or personal relationship with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work, with the following exceptions: Susan Eshleman has collaborated on research studies with investigators from Abbott; Abbott has provided reagents for collaborative research studies.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica M. Fogel
    • 1
  • Yinfeng Zhang
    • 1
  • Philip J. Palumbo
    • 1
  • Xu Guo
    • 2
  • William Clarke
    • 1
  • Autumn Breaud
    • 1
  • Paul Richardson
    • 1
  • Estelle Piwowar-Manning
    • 1
  • Erica L. Hamilton
    • 3
  • Tran Viet Ha
    • 4
  • Kostyantyn Dumchev
    • 5
  • Zubairi Djoerban
    • 6
  • Irving Hoffman
    • 7
  • Brett Hanscom
    • 2
  • William C. Miller
    • 8
  • Susan H. Eshleman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Vaccine and Infectious Disease DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Science Facilitation DepartmentFHI 360DurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of Health Behavior, Gilings School of Global Public HealthThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.Ukrainian Institute on Public Health PolicyKievUkraine
  6. 6.Departments of Hematology, Medical Oncology, and MedicineUniversity of Indonesia/Cipto Mangunkusumo HospitalJakartaIndonesia
  7. 7.Department of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of MedicineChapel HillUSA
  8. 8.Division of Epidemiology, College of Public HealthThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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