The Association Between Condomless Anal Sex and Social Support Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Six U.S. Cities: A Study Using Data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network BROTHERS Study (HPTN 061)
We assessed how egocentric (i.e., self-generated descriptions of a person’s social contacts) network structure and composition corresponded with reported instances of condomless receptive and insertive anal intercourse with men who were reportedly HIV-infected or of unknown HIV serostatus in a sample of black men who have sex with men (MSM) in six U.S. cities. Ratings showing a higher percentage of network members who provided social participation and medical support were positively associated with reporting condomless sex. There were also significant positive associations between stimulant use and condomless insertive and receptive anal sex. Future research should examine the social processes that underlie these associations and explore ways that social support can affect HIV prevention efforts for black MSM.
KeywordsBlack men who have sex with men Social networks Condomless anal sex HIV prevention
Keith A. Hermanstyne received support from the UCLA-Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, and Kenneth B. Wells and Nina T. Harawa provided study design feedback and research mentorship on this project.
Hong-Van Tieu reports that the HPTN 061 study was funded at the New York Blood Center by NIH 1-U01-AI06946. Steven Shoptaw received support via the P30 MH058107 Grant.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Keith A. Hermanstyne declares that he has no conflict of interest. Harold D. Green, Jr. declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hong-Van Tieu has received a research grant from Merck. Christopher Hucks-Ortiz declares that he has no conflict of interest. Leo Wilton declares that he has no conflict of interest. Steven Shoptaw reports grants from the National Institute on Mental Health during the conduct of the study and other support from Medicinova, Inc. outside of the submitted work.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of each institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 5.HIV among African American gay and bisexual men. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/group/msm/cdc-hiv-bmsm.pdf. Accessed February 6, 2017.
- 13.Heaney CA, Israel BA. Social networks and social support. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Lewis FM, editors. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2008.Google Scholar
- 14.Dyer TP, Regan R, Wilton L, Harawa NT, Ou SS, Wang L, et al. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and HIV-related sexual risk behavior between black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities. J Urban Health. 2013;90:1181–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Bernard HR, Hallett T, Iovita A, Johnsen EC, Lyerla R, McCarty C, et al. Counting hard-to-count populations: the network scale-up method for public health. Sex Transm Infect. 2016;86:11–5.Google Scholar
- 31.Carrington PJ, Scott J, Wasserman S, editors. Models and methods in social network analysis. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- 33.Kashy DA, Kenny DA. Dyadic data analysis using multilevel modeling. In: Hox J, Roberts JK, editors. Handbook of advanced multilevel analysis. 1st ed. New York: Routledge; 2011.Google Scholar
- 34.Kenny DA, Kashy DA, Cook WL, editors. Dyadic data analysis. 1st ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2006.Google Scholar
- 37.Goedel WC, Halkitis PN, Greene RE, Duncan DT. Correlates of awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications in New York City. AIDS Behav. 2016;20:1435–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar