AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1048–1056 | Cite as

Cross-Cultural Validation of the Health Care Provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale (HPASS) in China

  • Hong Xie
  • Huiting Yu
  • Roger Watson
  • Jing Wen
  • Lu Xiao
  • Mao Yan
  • Yanhua ChenEmail author
Original Paper


The study aimed to validate the Health Care Provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale among medical staff in China. The validation was conducted in four steps from March to December 2017: translation and back-translation; content validity test with six experts; test–retest reliability testing with 63 medical staff with 2 weeks interval; and structural validation with 349 medical staff from 52 hospitals with a convenience sample,using exploratory factor analysis,including principal component analysis and varimax rotation. The scale content validity index average was 0.88, while for test–retest reliability, the ICC was 0.87. Three factors of “discrimination”, “prejudice” and “stereotype” with 16 items were extracted and explained 59.61% variance. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the total scale was of 0.88, and for the three factors, the values were 0.89, 0.86 and 0.74, respectively. The discrimination factor showed identical means between Canadian medical students and Chinese medical staff, while the prejudice and stereotype factors had higher mean scores in the Chinese sample. The three-factor structure of Health Care Provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale was confirmed in Chinese medical staff with a simpler solution. This could provide a basis for trans-cultural application and comparison.


Medical staff HIV/AIDS Stigma Cross-culture validation Scale 



The authors thank all the participants. We acknowledge the editors and the reviewers for insightful suggestions on this work.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors do not have any possible conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval was granted by the research ethics committee of the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, in China.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Xie
    • 1
  • Huiting Yu
    • 1
  • Roger Watson
    • 2
  • Jing Wen
    • 1
  • Lu Xiao
    • 3
  • Mao Yan
    • 4
  • Yanhua Chen
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.School of NursingSouthwest Medical UniversityLuzhouChina
  2. 2.Health and Social Care FacultyThe University of HullHullUK
  3. 3.Respiratory Medicine Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical UniversityLuzhouChina
  4. 4.Infectious Disease Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical UniversityLuzhouChina

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