AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 1586–1589 | Cite as

Undiagnosed and Untreated HIV Infection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs: Results of Three National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Surveys, San Francisco, 2009–2015

  • Nathan Kim
  • Susie Welty
  • Tania Reza
  • David Sears
  • Willi McFarlandEmail author
  • Henry F. Raymond
Behavioral Surveillance


We examined three waves of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance surveys of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in San Francisco to assess meeting UNAIDS 90–90–90 targets. Diagnosis of PWID living with HIV increased from 64.4% in 2009 to 80.5% in 2015. Antiretroviral treatment among those diagnosed did not improve (63.8% in 2009, 62.9% in 2015). Programs in San Francisco have not achieved the first two UNAIDS targets for PWID by 2015. In a context of a rising opioid epidemic, there is urgent need for increased case finding of PWID living with HIV who are undiagnosed with rapid linkage to treatment.


HIV Continuum of care Persons who inject drugs 90–90–90 targets 


Examinamos encuestas de comportamiento en personas que se inyectan drogas en San Francisco para evaluar el cumplimiento de los objetivos de ONUSIDA 90-90-90. El diagnóstico en personas que viven con VIH aumentó de 64.4% en 2009 a 80.5% en 2015. El tratamiento antirretroviral no mejoró (63.8% en 2009, 62.9% en 2015). Los programas no han alcanzado los objetivos de ONUSIDA para personas que se inyectan drogas. En un contexto de aumento de la epidemia de opiáceos, existe una necesidad de un mayor esfueurzo de encontrar casos de VIH que no han sido diagnosticados con un vínculo rápido con el tratamiento.



This study was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant number 5U1BPS003247).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathan Kim
    • 1
  • Susie Welty
    • 2
  • Tania Reza
    • 2
  • David Sears
    • 3
  • Willi McFarland
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Henry F. Raymond
    • 5
  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Global Health Sciences, University of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Public HealthCenter for Public Health ResearchSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.School of Public HealthRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

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