Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 580–591 | Cite as

Do Symptoms of Depression Interact with Substance Use to Affect HIV Continuum of Care Outcomes?

  • Anthony T. FojoEmail author
  • Catherine R. Lesko
  • Keri L. Calkins
  • Richard D. Moore
  • Mary E. McCaul
  • Heidi E. Hutton
  • William C. Mathews
  • Heidi Crane
  • Katerina Christopoulos
  • Karen Cropsey
  • Michael J. Mugavero
  • Kenneth Mayer
  • Brian W. Pence
  • Bryan Lau
  • Geetanjali Chander
Original Paper
  • 224 Downloads

Abstract

Few studies examine how depression and substance use interact to affect HIV control. In 14,380 persons with HIV (PWH), we used logistic regression and generalized estimating equations to evaluate how symptoms of depression interact with alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and methamphetamine use to affect subsequent retention in care, maintaining an active prescription for ART, and consistent virologic suppression. Among PWH with no or mild depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use had no association with virologic suppression (OR 1.00 [0.95–1.06]); among those with moderate or severe symptoms, it was associated with reduced viral suppression (OR 0.80 [0.74–0.87]). We found no interactions with heavy alcohol use on retention in care or maintaining ART prescription or with other substances for any outcome. These results highlight the importance of treating moderate or severe depression in PWH, especially with comorbid heavy alcohol use, and support multifaceted interventions targeting alcohol use and depression.

Keywords

Alcohol HIV Depression Illicit drug use Viral suppression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by two NIAAA Research Grants (U01 AA020793, U24 AA020801).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Anthony T. Fojo, Catherine R. Lesko, Keri L. Calkins, Richard D. Moore, Mary E. McCaul, Heidi E. Hutton, William C. Mathews, Heidi Crane, Karen Cropsey, Michael J. Mugavero, Kenneth Mayer, Brian W. Pence, Bryan Lau, and Geetanjali Chander declares that they have no conflict of interest. Katerina Christopoulos has been scientific advisory board member for Roche Pharmaceuticals and a community advisory board member for Gilead Sciences Inc.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith CJ, Ryom L, Weber R, Morlat P, Pradier C, Reiss P, et al. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D): a multicohort collaboration. Lancet. 2014;384(9939):241–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Okulicz JF, Samji H, Cescon A, Hogg RS, Modur SP, Althoff KN, et al. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(12):e81355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skarbinski J, Rosenberg E, Paz-Bailey G, Hall HI, Rose CE, Viall AH, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus transmission at each step of the care continuum in the United States. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(4):588–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ghiam MK, Rebeiro PF, Turner M, Rogers WB, Bebawy SS, Raffanti SP, et al. Trends in HIV continuum of care outcomes over ten years of follow-up at a large HIV primary medical home in the Southeastern United States. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 2017;33:1027–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Colasanti J, Kelly J, Pennisi E, Hu Y-J, Root C, Hughes D, et al. Continuous retention and viral suppression provide further insights into the HIV care continuum compared to the cross-sectional HIV care cascade. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(5):648–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yehia BR, Stephens-Shields AJ, Fleishman JA, Berry SA, Agwu AL, Metlay JP, et al. The HIV care continuum: changes over time in retention in care and viral suppression. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0129376.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rebeiro P, Althoff KN, Buchacz K, Gill J, Horberg M, Krentz H, et al. Retention among North American HIV-infected persons in clinical care, 2000–2008. JAIDS. 2013;62(3):356–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, Fleishman JA, Sherbourne CD, London AS, et al. Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(8):721.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zuniga JA, Yoo-Jeong M, Dai T, Guo Y, Waldrop-Valverde D. The role of depression in retention in care for persons living with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2016;30(1):34–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krumme AA, Kaigamba F, Binagwaho A, Murray MB, Rich ML, Franke MF. Depression, adherence and attrition from care in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015;69(3):284–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gonzalez JS, Batchelder AW, Psaros C, Safren SA. Depression and HIV/AIDS treatment nonadherence: a review and meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58(2):181–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ, Hurley LB, Towner WJ, Klein DB, Bersoff-Matcha S, et al. Effects of depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and on clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47(3):384–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hartzell JD, Janke IE, Weintrob AC. Impact of depression on HIV outcomes in the HAART era. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62(2):246–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parienti JJ, Massari V, Descamps D, Vabret A, Bouvet E, Larouze B, et al. Predictors of virologic failure and resistance in HIV-infected patients treated with nevirapine- or efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(9):1311–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anastos K, Schneider MF, Gange SJ, Minkoff H, Greenblatt RM, Feldman J, et al. The association of race, sociodemographic, and behavioral characteristics with response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39(5):537–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barfod TS, Gerstoft J, Rodkjaer L, Pedersen C, Nielsen H, Moller A, et al. Patients’ answers to simple questions about treatment satisfaction and adherence and depression are associated with failure of HAART: a cross-sectional survey. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19(5):317–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ironson G, O’Cleirigh C, Fletcher MA, Laurenceau JP, Balbin E, Klimas N, et al. Psychosocial factors predict CD4 and viral load change in men and women with human immunodeficiency virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Psychosom Med. 2005;67(6):1013–21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hartzell JD, Spooner K, Howard R, Wegner S, Wortmann G. Race and mental health diagnosis are risk factors for highly active antiretroviral therapy failure in a military cohort despite equal access to care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44(4):411–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pence BW, Miller WC, Gaynes BN, Eron JJ Jr. Psychiatric illness and virologic response in patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44(2):159–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hartzler B, Dombrowski JC, Crane HM, Eron JJ, Geng EH, Christopher Mathews W, et al. Prevalence and predictors of substance use disorders among HIV care enrollees in the United States. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(4):1138–48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Durvasula R, Miller TR. Substance abuse treatment in persons with HIV/AIDS: challenges in managing triple diagnosis. Behav Med. 2014;40(2):43–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chander G, Josephs J, Fleishman JA, Korthuis PT, Gaist P, Hellinger J, et al. Alcohol use among HIV-infected persons in care: results of a multi-site survey. HIV Med. 2008;9(4):196–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Crane HM, McCaul ME, Chander G, Hutton H, Nance RM, Delaney JAC, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with hazardous alcohol use among persons living with HIV across the US in the current era of antiretroviral treatment. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(7):1914–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cofrancesco J Jr, Scherzer R, Tien PC, Gibert CL, Southwell H, Sidney S, et al. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort. AIDS. 2008;22(3):357–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Monroe AK, Lau B, Mugavero MJ, Mathews WC, Mayer KH, Napravnik S, et al. Heavy alcohol use is associated with worse retention in HIV care. JAIDS. 2016;73(4):419–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chander G, Lau B, Moore RD. Hazardous alcohol use: a risk factor for non-adherence and lack of suppression in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43(4):411–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hendershot CS, Stoner SA, Pantalone DW, Simoni JM. Alcohol use and antiretroviral adherence: review and meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52(2):180–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Braithwaite RS, McGinnis KA, Conigliaro J, Maisto SA, Crystal S, Day N, et al. A temporal and dose-response association between alcohol consumption and medication adherence among veterans in care. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005;29(7):1190–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gonzalez A, Barinas J, O’Cleirigh C. Substance use: impact on adherence and HIV medical treatment. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2011;8(4):223–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rasbach DA, Desruisseau AJ, Kipp AM, Stinnette S, Kheshti A, Shepherd BE, et al. Active cocaine use is associated with lack of HIV-1 virologic suppression independent of nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy: use of a rapid screening tool during routine clinic visits. AIDS Care. 2013;25(1):109–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chander G, Himelhoch S, Moore RD. Substance abuse and psychiatric disorders in HIV-positive patients: epidemiology and impact on antiretroviral therapy. Drugs. 2006;66(6):769–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tegger MK, Crane HM, Tapia KA, Uldall KK, Holte SE, Kitahata MM. The effect of mental illness, substance use, and treatment for depression on the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2008;22(3):233–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arnsten JH, Demas PA, Grant RW, Gourevitch MN, Farzadegan H, Howard AA, et al. Impact of active drug use on antiretroviral therapy adherence and viral suppression in HIV-infected drug users. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17(5):377–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kallas EG, McGowan CC, Weinstein DD, Samenow CP, Stinnette SE, Barkanic G, et al. Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in two U.S. clinic cohorts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(4):e18462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cook JA, Grey DD, Burke-Miller JK, Cohen MH, Vlahov D, Kapadia F, et al. Illicit drug use, depression and their association with highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive women. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;89(1):74–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Himelhoch S, Chander G, Fleishman JA, Hellinger J, Gaist P, Gebo KA. Access to HAART and utilization of inpatient medical hospital services among HIV-infected patients with co-occurring serious mental illness and injection drug use. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007;29(6):518–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marquez C, Mitchell SJ, Hare CB, John M, Klausner JD. Methamphetamine use, sexual activity, patient-provider communication, and medication adherence among HIV-infected patients in care, San Francisco 2004–2006. AIDS Care. 2009;21(5):575–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fairbairn N, Kerr T, Milloy MJ, Zhang R, Montaner J, Wood E. Crystal methamphetamine injection predicts slower HIV RNA suppression among injection drug users. Addict Behav. 2011;36(7):762–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ellis RJ, Childers ME, Cherner M, Lazzaretto D, Letendre S, Grant I, et al. Increased human immunodeficiency virus loads in active methamphetamine users are explained by reduced effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2003;188(12):1820–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mehta SH, Lucas G, Astemborski J, Kirk GD, Vlahov D, Galai N. Early immunologic and virologic responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy and subsequent disease progression among HIV-infected injection drug users. AIDS Care. 2007;19(5):637–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Azar P, Wood E, Nguyen P, Luma M, Montaner J, Kerr T, et al. Drug use patterns associated with risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting: a longitudinal analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15(1):193.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Braithwaite RS, Fang Y, Tate J, Mentor SM, Bryant KJ, Fiellin DA, et al. Do alcohol misuse, smoking, and depression vary concordantly or sequentially? A longitudinal study of HIV-infected and matched uninfected veterans in care. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(3):566–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sullivan LE, Saitz R, Cheng DM, Libman H, Nunes D, Samet JH. The impact of alcohol use on depressive symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Addiction. 2008;103(9):1461–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ghebremichael M, Paintsil E, Ickovics JR, Vlahov D, Schuman P, Boland R, et al. Longitudinal association of alcohol use with HIV disease progression and psychological health of women with HIV. AIDS Care. 2009;21(7):834–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ruggles KV, Fang Y, Tate J, Mentor SM, Bryant KJ, Fiellin DA, et al. What are the patterns between depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use among individuals receiving medical care? A longitudinal study of 5479 participants. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(7):2014–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Galvan FH, Burnam MA, Bing EG. Co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and drug dependence or heavy drinking among HIV-positive people. J Psychoact Drugs. 2003;35(Suppl 1):153–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rabkin JG, Johnson J, Lin SH, Lipsitz JD, Remien RH, Williams JB, et al. Psychopathology in male and female HIV-positive and negative injecting drug users: longitudinal course over 3 years. AIDS. 1997;11(4):507–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brunette MF, Mueser KT. Psychosocial interventions for the long-term management of patients with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(Suppl 7):10–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nelson S, Bagby GJ. Alcohol and HIV infection. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2011;122:244–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kapadia F, Vlahov D, Donahoe RM, Friedland G. The role of substance abuse in HIV disease progression: reconciling differences from laboratory and epidemiologic investigations. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(7):1027–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang X, Ho W-Z. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: implications for mother–fetus transmission. Life Sci. 2011;88(21–22):972–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chander G, Himelhoch S, Fleishman JA, Hellinger J, Gaist P, Moore RD, et al. HAART receipt and viral suppression among HIV-infected patients with co-occurring mental illness and illicit drug use. AIDS Care. 2009;21(5):655–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Blashill AJ, Bedoya CA, Mayer KH, O’Cleirigh C, Pinkston MM, Remmert JE, et al. Psychosocial syndemics are additively associated with worse ART adherence in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(6):981–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kitahata MM, Rodriguez B, Haubrich R, Boswell S, Mathews WC, Lederman MM, et al. Cohort profile: the centers for AIDS research network of integrated clinical systems. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37(5):948–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bush K, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(16):1789–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reinert DF, Allen JP. The alcohol use disorders identification test: an update of research findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31(2):185–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Humeniuk R, Ali R, Babor TF, Farrell M, Formigoni ML, Jittiwutikarn J, et al. Validation of the Alcohol, Smoking And Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Addiction. 2008;103(6):1039–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Clinician’s Screening Tool for Drug Use in General Medical Settings; 2010. https://www.drugabuse.gov/nmassist/.
  60. 60.
    Ford MA, Spicer CM, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee to review data systems for monitoring HIV care. Monitoring HIV care in the United States: indicators and data systems. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Machado-Vieira R, Baumann J, Wheeler-Castillo C, Latov D, Henter ID, Salvadore G, et al. The timing of antidepressant effects: a comparison of diverse pharmacological and somatic treatments. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010;3(1):19–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Himelhoch S, Moore RD, Treisman G, Gebo KA. Does the presence of a current psychiatric disorder in AIDS patients affect the initiation of antiretroviral treatment and duration of therapy? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;37(4):1457–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Paterson DL, Swindells S, Mohr J, Brester M, Vergis EN, Squier C, et al. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133(1):21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yun LW, Maravi M, Kobayashi JS, Barton PL, Davidson AJ. Antidepressant treatment improves adherence to antiretroviral therapy among depressed HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;38(4):432–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lima VD, Geller J, Bangsberg DR, Patterson TL, Daniel M, Kerr T, et al. The effect of adherence on the association between depressive symptoms and mortality among HIV-infected individuals first initiating HAART. AIDS. 2007;21(9):1175–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Walkup J, Wei W, Sambamoorthi U, Crystal S. Antidepressant treatment and adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy among patients with AIDS and diagnosed depression. Psychiatr Q. 2008;79(1):43–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. In: Department of Health and Human Services, editor.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bulsara SM, Wainberg ML, Newton-John TRO. Predictors of adult retention in HIV care: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(3):752–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sheehan DM, Fennie KP, Mauck DE, Maddox LM, Lieb S, Trepka MJ. Retention in HIV care and viral suppression: individual- and neighborhood-level predictors of racial/ethnic differences, Florida, 2015. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2017;31(4):167–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hanna DB, Buchacz K, Gebo KA, Hessol NA, Horberg MA, Jacobson LP, et al. Trends and disparities in antiretroviral therapy initiation and virologic suppression among newly treatment-eligible HIV-infected individuals in North America, 2001–2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(8):1174–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yehia BR, Rebeiro P, Althoff KN, Agwu AL, Horberg MA, Samji H, et al. Impact of age on retention in care and viral suppression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68(4):413–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Howe CJ, Cole SR, Westreich DJ, Greenland S, Napravnik S, Eron JJ Jr. Splines for trend analysis and continuous confounder control. Epidemiology. 2011;22(6):874–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zeger SL, Liang KY. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics. 1986;42(1):121–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mansournia MA, Altman DG. Inverse probability weighting. BMJ. 2016;352:i189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    van Buuren S, Groothuis-Oudshoorn K. mice: multivariate imputation by chained equations in R. J Stat Softw. 2011;45(3):1–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rubin DB. Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2004.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    O’Brien RM. A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors. Qual Quant. 2007;41(5):673–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mugavero MJ, Westfall AO, Zinski A, Davila J, Drainoni M-L, Gardner LI, et al. Measuring retention in HIV care. JAIDS. 2012;61(5):574–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pan W. Akaike’s information criterion in generalized estimating equations. Biometrics. 2001;57(1):120–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hin LY, Wang YG. Working-correlation-structure identification in generalized estimating equations. Stat Med. 2009;28(4):642–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lefkopoulou M, Ryan L. Global tests for multiple binary outcomes. Biometrics. 1993;49(4):975–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rothman KJ. No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons. Epidemiology. 1990;1(1):43–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria; 2014.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Halekoh U, Højsgaard S, Yan J. The R package geepack for generalized estimating equations. J Stat Softw. 2006;15(2):1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    McDaniel LS, Henderson NC, Rathouz PJ. Fast pure R implementation of GEE: application of the matrix package. R J. 2013;5(1):181–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fox J, Weisberg S, Fox J. An R companion to applied regression. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2011.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chilcot J, Chin WY, Choi EPH, Chan KTY, Wong CKH. The psychometric properties of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale in Chinese primary care patients: factor structure, construct validity, reliability, sensitivity and responsiveness. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(8):e0135131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Milette K, Hudson M, Baron M, Thombs BD. Comparison of the PHQ-9 and CES-D depression scales in systemic sclerosis: internal consistency reliability, convergent validity and clinical correlates. Rheumatology. 2010;49(4):789–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Amtmann D, Kim J, Chung H, Bamer AM, Askew RL, Wu S, et al. Comparing CESD-10, PHQ-9, and PROMIS depression instruments in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Rehabil Psychol. 2014;59(2):220–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Li X, Margolick JB, Conover CS, Badri S, Riddler SA, Witt MD, et al. Interruption and discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;38(3):320–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Berg CJ, Michelson SE, Safren SA. Behavioral aspects of HIV care: adherence, depression, substance use, and HIV-transmission behaviors. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 2007;21(1):181–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cook RL, Zhou Z, Kelso-Chichetto NE, Janelle J, Morano JP, Somboonwit C, et al. Alcohol consumption patterns and HIV viral suppression among persons receiving HIV care in Florida: an observational study. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2017;12(1):22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morisano D, Babor TF, Robaina KA. Co-occurrence of substance use disorders with other psychiatric disorders: implications for treatment services. Nord Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2017;31(1):5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Drake RE, Mueser KT, Brunette MF. Management of persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorder: program implications. World Psychiatry. 2007;6(3):131–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kalichman SC, Grebler T, Amaral CM, McNerney M, White D, Kalichman MO, et al. Viral suppression and antiretroviral medication adherence among alcohol using HIV-positive adults. Int J Behav Med. 2014;21(5):811–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fabris P, Tositti G, Manfrin V, Giordani MT, Vaglia A, Cattelan AM, et al. Does alcohol intake affect highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) response in HIV-positive patients? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25(1):92–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Conen A, Wang Q, Glass TR, Fux CA, Thurnheer MC, Orasch C, et al. Association of alcohol consumption and HIV surrogate markers in participants of the swiss HIV cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;64(5):472–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Giordano TP, Hartman C, Gifford AL, Backus LI, Morgan RO. Predictors of retention in HIV care among a national cohort of US veterans. HIV Clin Trials. 2009;10(5):299–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ulett KB, Willig JH, Lin HY, Routman JS, Abroms S, Allison J, et al. The therapeutic implications of timely linkage and early retention in HIV care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(1):41–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sohler NL, Wong MD, Cunningham WE, Cabral H, Drainoni M-L, Cunningham CO. Type and pattern of illicit drug use and access to health care services for HIV-infected people. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2007;21(s1):68–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Simon GE, VonKorff M, Barlow W. Health care costs of primary care patients with recognized depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52(10):850–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fairley CK, Sze JK, Vodstrcil LA, Chen MY. Computer-assisted self interviewing in sexual health clinics. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37(11):665–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    O’Cleirigh C, Newcomb ME, Mayer KH, Skeer M, Traeger L, Safren SA. Moderate levels of depression predict sexual transmission risk in HIV-infected MSM: a longitudinal analysis of data from six sites involved in a “prevention for positives” study. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(5):1764–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lesko CR, Cole SR, Hall HI, Westreich D, Miller WC, Eron JJ, et al. The effect of antiretroviral therapy on all-cause mortality, generalized to persons diagnosed with HIV in the USA, 2009–11. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45(1):140–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lesko CR, Buchanan AL, Westreich D, Edwards JK, Hudgens MG, Cole SR. Generalizing study results: a potential outcomes perspective. Epidemiology. 2017;28(4):553–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony T. Fojo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Catherine R. Lesko
    • 2
  • Keri L. Calkins
    • 2
  • Richard D. Moore
    • 1
  • Mary E. McCaul
    • 1
  • Heidi E. Hutton
    • 1
  • William C. Mathews
    • 3
  • Heidi Crane
    • 4
  • Katerina Christopoulos
    • 5
  • Karen Cropsey
    • 6
  • Michael J. Mugavero
    • 6
  • Kenneth Mayer
    • 7
  • Brian W. Pence
    • 8
  • Bryan Lau
    • 2
  • Geetanjali Chander
    • 1
  1. 1.School of MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.School of MedicineUniversity of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.School of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  5. 5.School of MedicineUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  6. 6.School of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  7. 7.School of MedicineHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  8. 8.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public HealthChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations