Symptoms of Depression in People Living with HIV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Prevalence and Associated Factors
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence and correlates of symptoms of depression among 400 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) from two HIV clinics in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression scale, 36.5% of participants were classified as likely to be clinically depressed. Factors independently associated with symptoms of depression included self-report of poor or fair health (aOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33–3.51), having a low body mass index (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13–3.04), reporting recent problems with family (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.21–3.19), feeling shame about being HIV-infected (aOR 1.90, 95% CI 1.20–3.00), and reporting conflict with a partner (aOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.14–4.26). Participants who lived with family (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25–0.90) or who received emotional support from their families or supportive HIV networks (aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25–0.80) were less likely to experience symptoms of depression. Screening for and treatment of depression among Vietnamese PLHIV are needed.
KeywordsCES-D Depression HIV/AIDS Outpatient Vietnam
The authors would like to thank the people living with HIV who participated in this study, as well as the individuals and institutions that made this research possible: Dr Tran Thinh, Dr Nguyen Hoang Tam, Dr Van Hung from Ho Chi Minh city Provincial AIDS Committee; Dr Bui Thi Thu Phuong and Dr Pham Thanh Hieu from the HIV outpatient clinics; Associate Professor Do Van Dung, Mr Tran Nhat Quang, Mr Hua Thanh Liem, Ms Van Thi Thuy Duong, Ms Kim Xuan Loan from the Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy; Ms Bui Thi Hy Han from the Ho Chi Minh City Institute of Public Health; and Drs. John Nguyen and Jeffrey Mandel from the University of California, San Francisco.
This work was supported by The Representative Office of Abbott Laboratories S.A. in Vietnam in collaboration with Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy HAND AWARENESS program. No Abbott products were used or were recommended to be used during the study and no trademark of Abbott appeared in the study. Travel for field work was funded by the Australia Award Scholarship. Protocol development and manuscript writing was supported by CDC-PEPFAR Vietnam, the University of California, San Francisco’s International Traineeships in AIDS Prevention Studies (ITAPS) program (U.S. NIMH, R25MH064712), and the Starr Foundation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Human Ethics Committee at Ho Chi Minh City Provincial AIDS Committee, Vietnam (Approval number: IRB-03-2013, dated 17/10/2013) and the University of Sydney, Australia (Approval number: 2013/859, dated 15/11/2013) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.World Health Organization. Depression fact sheet. 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/. Accessed 2 May 2016.
- 5.Shittu RO, Issa BA, Olanrewaju GT, et al. Prevalence and correlates of depressive disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS, in North Central Nigeria. J AIDS HIV Res. 2013;4(11):2.Google Scholar
- 8.Bhatia MS, Munjal S. Prevalence of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART and factors associated with it. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(10):01–4.Google Scholar
- 12.Vietnam administration of HIV/AIDS control. A report on HIV/AIDS prevention in 2015 and priorities for 2016. Ministry of Health. 2016. Report No.: 145/BC-BYT.Google Scholar
- 20.Vietnam administration of HIV/AIDS control—Ministry of Health. Vietnam HIV/AIDS estimates and projections 2011–2015. Hanoi: Medical Publishing House; 2013.Google Scholar
- 22.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed, text revised. Washington, DC; 2013.Google Scholar
- 25.Natamba BK, Achan J, Arbach A, et al. Reliability and validity of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale in screening for depression among HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnant women attending antenatal services in northern Uganda: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.World Health Organization. Mental health atlas: 2011. Geneva: Switzerland; 2011.Google Scholar