Association of Cannabis, Stimulant, and Alcohol use with Mortality Prognosis Among HIV-Infected Men

  • Joëlla W. Adams
  • Kendall J. Bryant
  • Jennifer E. Edelman
  • David A. Fiellin
  • Julie R. Gaither
  • Adam J. Gordon
  • Kirsha S. Gordon
  • Kevin L. Kraemer
  • Matthew J. Mimiaga
  • Don Operario
  • Janet P. Tate
  • Jacob J. van den Berg
  • Amy C. Justice
  • Brandon D. L. Marshall
Original Paper

Abstract

Questionnaires over a 9-year study period (2002–2010) were used to characterize cannabis, stimulant, and alcohol use among 3099 HIV-infected men participating in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) to determine whether use of these substances is associated with changes in the VACS Index, a validated prognostic indicator for all-cause mortality. At baseline, 18% of participants reported no substance use in the past year, 24% lower risk alcohol use only, 18% unhealthy alcohol use only, 15% cannabis use (with or without alcohol), and 24% stimulant use (with or without alcohol or cannabis). In adjusted longitudinal analyses, cannabis use [β = −0.97 (95% CI −1.93, 0.00), p = 0.048] was not associated with mortality risk, while stimulant use [1.08 (0.16, 2.00), p = 0.021] was associated with an increased mortality risk, compared to lower risk alcohol use. Our findings show no evidence of a negative effect of cannabis use on mortality risk, while stimulant use was associated with increased mortality risk among HIV-infected men. Interventions to reduce stimulant use in this patient population may reduce mortality.

Keywords

Alcohol Cannabis Drug use Men who have sex with men HIV/AIDS 

Supplementary material

10461_2017_1905_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 13 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joëlla W. Adams
    • 1
  • Kendall J. Bryant
    • 2
  • Jennifer E. Edelman
    • 3
  • David A. Fiellin
    • 3
  • Julie R. Gaither
    • 4
  • Adam J. Gordon
    • 5
    • 6
  • Kirsha S. Gordon
    • 7
  • Kevin L. Kraemer
    • 8
  • Matthew J. Mimiaga
    • 1
  • Don Operario
    • 1
  • Janet P. Tate
    • 3
    • 7
  • Jacob J. van den Berg
    • 1
  • Amy C. Justice
    • 3
    • 7
  • Brandon D. L. Marshall
    • 1
  1. 1.Brown University School of Public HealthProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and AlcoholismNational Institutes of HealthRockvilleUSA
  3. 3.Division of General Internal Medicine and the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDSYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public HealthYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  5. 5.Center for Health Equity Research and PromotionPittsburgh VA Healthcare SystemPittsburghUSA
  6. 6.Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Center for Research on Health CareUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  7. 7.Veterans Aging Cohort Study Coordinating CenterVeterans Administration Connecticut Healthcare SystemWest HavenUSA
  8. 8.VA Pittsburgh Healthcare SystemPittsburghUSA

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