AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1411–1422 | Cite as

Association Between Depressive Symptom Patterns and Clinical Profiles Among Persons Living with HIV

  • N. E. Kelso-Chichetto
  • C. N. Okafor
  • R. L. Cook
  • A. G. Abraham
  • R. Bolan
  • M. Plankey
Original Paper


To describe patterns of depressive symptoms across 10-years by HIV status and to determine the associations between depressive symptom patterns, HIV status, and clinical profiles of persons living with HIV from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (N = 980) and Women’s Interagency HIV Study (N = 1744). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify depressive symptoms patterns between 2004 and 2013. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to determine associations of depression risk patterns. A 3-group model emerged among HIV-negative women (low: 58%; moderate: 31%; severe: 11%); 5-groups emerged among HIV-positive women (low: 28%; moderate: 31%; high: 25%; decreased: 7%; severe: 9%). A 4-group model emerged among HIV-negative (low: 52%; moderate: 15%; high: 23%; severe: 10%) and HIV-positive men (low: 34%; moderate: 34%; high: 22%; severe: 10%). HIV+ women had higher odds for moderate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.10, 95% CI 1.63–2.70) and severe (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.33–2.91) depression risk groups, compared to low depression risk. HIV+ men had higher odds for moderate depression risk (AOR 3.23, 95% CI 2.22–4.69), compared to low risk. The Framingham Risk Score, ART use, and unsuppressed viral load were associated with depressive symptom patterns. Clinicians should consider the impact that depressive symptoms may have on HIV prognosis and clinical indicators of comorbid illnesses.


HIV Depression Longitudinal Comorbidities 



This work was supported by Grant F31 AA024064 from the National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse of the National Institutes of Health (Natalie Kelso-Chichetto), Grant U01-AI-103397 from the Miami Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) (support for Robert Cook), and Grant F31 DA039810 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Chukwuemeka Okafor).


Data in this manuscript were collected by the WIHS and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, or National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.

Additional Information

WIHS (Principal Investigators): Bronx WIHS (Kathryn Anastos), U01-AI-035004; Brooklyn WIHS (Howard Minkoff and Deborah Gustafson), U01-AI-031834; Chicago WIHS (Mardge Cohen and Audrey French), U01-AI-034993; Metropolitan Washington WIHS (Seble Kassaye), U01-AI-034994; Connie Wofsy Women’s HIV Study, Northern California (Ruth Greenblatt, Bradley Aouizerat, and Phyllis Tien), U01-AI-034989; WIHS Data Management and Analysis Center (Stephen Gange and Elizabeth Golub), U01-AI-042590; Southern California WIHS (Joel Milam), U01-HD-032632 (WIHS I-WIHS IV). The WIHS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional co-funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects is also provided by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), and the NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health. WIHS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000004 (UCSF CTSA) and UL1-TR000454 (Atlanta CTSA). MACS (Principal Investigators): Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (Joseph Margolick), U01-AI35042; Northwestern University (Steven Wolinsky), U01-AI35039; University of California, Los Angeles (Roger Detels), U01-AI35040; University of Pittsburgh (Charles Rinaldo), U01-AI35041; the Center for Analysis and Management of MACS, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (Lisa Jacobson), UM1-AI35043. The MACS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional co-funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects was also provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders (NIDCD). MACS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR001079 (JHU ICTR) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. The MACS website is located at


This article was funded by Kelso-Chichetto, NIAAA F31 AA024064.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The secondary use of the MACS and WIHS data was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Florida, Gainesville FL.

Informed Consent

All participants of MACS and WIHS completed informed consent.

Supplementary material

10461_2017_1822_MOESM1_ESM.docx (107 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 107 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. E. Kelso-Chichetto
    • 1
  • C. N. Okafor
    • 2
  • R. L. Cook
    • 1
  • A. G. Abraham
    • 3
    • 4
  • R. Bolan
    • 5
  • M. Plankey
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyCollege of Public Health and Health Professions, University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineDavid Geffen School of Medicine, University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Los Angeles LGBT CenterLos AngelesUSA
  6. 6.Department of MedicineGeorgetown University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA

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