Risk Behaviors for HIV and HCV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs in Hai Phong, Viet Nam, 2014
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We examined the potential for HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) transmission across persons who inject drugs (PWID), men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) and female commercial sex workers (CSW) PWID and the potential for sexual transmission of HIV from PWID to the general population in Hai Phong, Viet Nam. Using respondent driven and convenience sampling we recruited 603 participants in 2014. All participants used heroin; 24% used non-injected methamphetamine. HIV prevalence was 25%; HCV prevalence was 67%. HIV infection was associated with HCV prevalence and both infections were associated with length of injecting career. Reported injecting risk behaviors were low; unsafe sexual behavior was high among MSM-PWID and CSW-PWID. There is strong possibility of sexual transmission to primary partners facilitated by methamphetamine use. We would suggest future HIV prevention programs utilize multiple interventions including “treatment as prevention” to potential sexual transmission of HIV among MSM and CSW-PWID and from PWID to the general population.
KeywordsHIV Persons who inject drugs (PWID) Vietnam Respondent driven sampling (RDS) Sex workers Men who have sex with men (MSM)
This study was funded by the ANRS 12299 and NIDA P30DA011041. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the position of the National Institutes of Health or l’Agence de recherche ANRS.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Institutional Review Boards of the Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy and Mount Sinai Beth Israel.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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