Examining the Effects of Transphobic Discrimination and Race on HIV Risk Among Transwomen in San Francisco
- 412 Downloads
Transwomen, in particular transwomen of color (TWOC), are among the most vulnerable populations at risk for HIV. This secondary analysis is organized using a gender minority stress framework to examine the effects of transphobic discrimination and race on HIV risk factors. We describe the sample of 149 HIV- adult transwomen in San Francisco and use binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between levels of transphobic discrimination and TWOC status on binge drinking and condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI), controlling for potential confounders. Those with high levels of transphobic discrimination had 3.59 fold greater odds of engaging in binge drinking compared to those who reported a low level of transphobic discrimination (95% CI 1.284–10.034; P = 0.015). TWOC had nearly threefold greater odds of CRAI compared to white transwomen (95% CI 1.048–8.464; P = 0.040). We discuss implications for gender minority stress research and future interventions for this population.
KeywordsTransgender Transwomen Alcohol use HIV/AIDS LGBT health
The authors would like to thank all participants in the study. This study’s funding source had no role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the article for publication. SA led the development of the manuscript, conducted the statistical analysis, and conceived the data analysis plan. HRF and ECW contributed to the manuscript development.
Sean Arayasirikul was supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Graduate Research Training on Alcohol Problems (T32AA007240).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All study procedures were approved by the IRB at the University of California, San Francisco. We have also included supporting statements before the References section to reaffirm ethical conduct of this research study.
- 16.Langenderfer-Magruder L, Whitfield DL, Walls NE, Kattari SK, Ramos D. Experiences of intimate partner violence and subsequent police reporting among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adults in Colorado: comparing rates of cisgender and transgender victimization. J Interpers Violence. 2014. PubMed PMID 25392392. Google Scholar
- 20.Khan MR, Golin CE, Friedman SR, Scheidell JD, Adimora AA, Judon-Monk S, et al. STI/HIV sexual risk behavior and prevalent STI among incarcerated African American men in committed partnerships: the significance of poverty, mood disorders, and substance use. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(8):1478–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.Kutner BA, Nelson KM, Simoni JM, Sauceda JA, Wiebe JS. Factors associated with sexual risk of HIV transmission among HIV-positive Latino men who have sex with men on the U.S.-Mexico border. AIDS Behav. 2016. PubMed PMID: 27278549. Pubmed Central PMCID: 5145765.Google Scholar
- 26.Kelley CF, Kraft CS, de Man TJ, Duphare C, Lee HW, Yang J, et al. The rectal mucosa and condomless receptive anal intercourse in HIV-negative MSM: implications for HIV transmission and prevention. Mucosal Immunol. 2016. PubMed PMID: 27848950.Google Scholar
- 30.Shires DA, Jaffee KD. Structural Discrimination is associated with smoking status among a National sample of transgender individuals. Nicot Tob Res. 2015. PubMed PMID: 26438646.Google Scholar