Exploring Patterns of Awareness and Use of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men
- 1.6k Downloads
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown promise as a safe and effective HIV prevention strategy, but there is limited research on awareness and use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using baseline data from the “Keep It Up! 2.0” randomized control trial, we examined differences in PrEP awareness and use among racially diverse YMSM (N = 759; mean age = 24.2 years). Participants were recruited from study sites in Atlanta, Chicago, and New York City, as well as through national advertising on social media applications. While 67.5 % of participants reported awareness of PrEP, 8.7 % indicated using the medication. Awareness, but not use, varied by demographic variables. PrEP-users had twice as many condomless anal sex partners (ERR = 2.05) and more condomless anal sex acts (ERR = 1.60) than non-users. Future research should aim to improve PrEP awareness and uptake among YMSM and address condom use.
KeywordsHomosexuality, male Pre-exposure prophylaxis Primary health care Risk reduction Behavior Sexual behavior
Research reported in this article was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health under Award No. R01DA035145. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the community-based organizations that participated in the recruitment of study participants and we thank the project staff that went above and beyond to implement the study.
This study was funded by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA035145).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Northwestern University Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 2.White House Office of National AIDS Policy. National HIV/AIDS strategy for the United States: updated to 2020. Washington: White House Office of National AIDS Policy; 2015.Google Scholar
- 3.CDC. HIV surveillance in adolescents and young adults 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_surveillance_Adolescents.pdf. Accessed 30 Dec 2014.
- 4.CDC. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007–2010. CDC National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, 2012.Google Scholar
- 5.CDC. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/prevention/research/prep/. Accessed 15 Sept 2015.
- 11.Cohen SE, Vittinghoff E, Bacon O, Doblecki-Lewis S, Postle BS, Feaster DJ, et al. High interest in preexposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV infection: baseline data from the US PrEP demonstration project. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68(4):439–48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Parsons JT, Rendina HJ, Whitfield THF, Grov C. Familiarity with and preferences for oral and long-acting injectable PrEP in a U.S. national sample of gay/bisexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Under Review.Google Scholar
- 16.Eaton LA, Driffin DD, Smith H, Conway-Washington C, White D, Cherry C. Psychosocial factors related to willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men attending a community event. Sex Health. 2014;11(3):244–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Blumenthal J, Jain S, Krakower D, Sun X, Young J, Mayer K, et al. Knowledge is power! Increased provider knowledge scores regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are associated with higher rates of PrEP prescription and future intent to prescribe PrEP. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(5):802–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.CDC. In: Services DoHaH, editor. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States - 2014: a clinical practice guideline. Atlanta: CDC; 2014.Google Scholar
- 28.Parsons JT, Rendina HJ, Grov C, Ventuneac A, Mustanski B. Accuracy of highly sexually active gay and bisexual men’s predictions of their daily likelihood of anal sex and its relevance for intermittent event-driven HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68(4):449–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 30.Liu AY, Vittinghoff E, Chillag K, Mayer K, Thompson M, Grohskopf L, et al. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men participating in a Tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis randomized trial in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;64(1):87–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.McNeil DG. Advocating Pill, U.S. Signals Shift to Prevent AIDS. New York: New York Times; 2014.Google Scholar
- 37.Wilton J, Senn H, Sharma M, Tan DH. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for sexually-acquired HIV risk management: a review. HIV AIDS. 2015;7:125–36.Google Scholar
- 38.Mustanski B, Ryan DT, Sanchez T, Sineath C, Macapagal K, Sullivan PS. Effects of messaging about multiple biomedical and behavioral HIV prevention methods on intentions to use among US MSM: results of an experimental messaging study. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(9):1651–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 39.CfD Control. Prevention. CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2013. MMWR Suppl. 2013;62:1–186.Google Scholar
- 40.HIV Prevention Trials Network. HPTN 073: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Initiation and Adherence among Black Men who have Sex with Men (BMSM) in Three U.S. Cities 2014. http://www.hptn.org/research_studies/hptn073.asp.Accessed 18 Aug 2015.
- 41.Rendina HJ, Grov C, Whitfield THF, Ventuneac A, Parsons JT. Intentions to initiate PrEP among gay and bisexual men are driven by demographic factors, sexual risk, and perceptions of providers: Results from a nationally representative sample. Annual Meeting of the International Association for Providers of AIDS Care Miami, June 2015.Google Scholar
- 42.Bishaw A, Fontenot K. Poverty: 2012 and 2013. Maryland: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce USDo; 2014.Google Scholar
- 43.U.S. Census Bureau. Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) 2015. http://www.census.gov/did/www/sahie/data/interactive/. Accessed 11 Aug 2015.