AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1091–1104 | Cite as

Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984–2013

  • Chukwuemeka N. Okafor
  • Robert L. Cook
  • Xinguang Chen
  • Pamela J. Surkan
  • James T. Becker
  • Steve Shoptaw
  • Eileen Martin
  • Michael W. Plankey
Original Paper

Abstract

To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV−)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984–2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated with increasing marijuana use across all four trajectory groups. Antiretroviral therapy use over time was associated with decreasing marijuana use in the abstainer/infrequent and increaser trajectory groups. Having a detectable HIV viral load was associated with increasing marijuana use in the increaser group only. Future investigations are needed to determine whether long-term patterns of use are associated with adverse consequences especially among HIV+ persons.

Keywords

Marijuana use MSM Trajectories Persons living with HIV 

Resumen

Construir unas trayectorias longitudinal del uso de marijuana por hombres que han tenido relaciones sexuales con otros hombres y tienen o son inclinado a tener VIH. Hemos determinado los factores distinto que son asociado con las trayectorias del uso y tambien los que sirven a modificar el curso de la trayectoria. Se analizó datos de 3.658 hombres (1.439 VIH-sero-positivo y 2.219 VIH-sero-negativo) del estudio Multicenter AIDS Cohort (MACS) que han tenido relaciones sexuales con otros hombres. La frecuencia del uso de marijuana se colecto semi anual sobre 29 años (1984–2013). Utilizamos modelos de trayectoria basado en grupos para identificar las trayectorias, determinar los indicadores y modificadores de las trayectorias sobre tiempo.Identificamos cuatro distinto trayectorias del uso de marijuana: [1] abstinente/infrecuente 65 % (2) disminución de uso 13 % (3) uso creciente 12 % y (4) crónico 10 %. Se nota una correlación significativamente con hombres VIH-positivo en grupos 2, 3 y 4, En el análisis de hombres solo VHI-positivo, uso del alcohol, cigarrillos, estimulantes y otras drogas tuvieron asociado con el uso de marijuana mas creciente sobre todos los groupos de la trayectorias. Hombres que practican terapia antiretroviral estuvieron asociado con grupos 1 y 3. Hombres con niveles de viral load detectable estuvieron asociado con group 3 solamente. Se requiere mas estudios para mejor analizar si el uso a largo plazo son asociadas con las consecuencias especialmente entre personas VIH-positivo.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 20 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 13 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 14 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chukwuemeka N. Okafor
    • 1
  • Robert L. Cook
    • 1
  • Xinguang Chen
    • 1
  • Pamela J. Surkan
    • 2
  • James T. Becker
    • 3
  • Steve Shoptaw
    • 4
  • Eileen Martin
    • 5
  • Michael W. Plankey
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, College of MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Social and Behavioral Interventions Program, Department of International HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, Department of Neurology and PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Family MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious DiseasesGeorgetown University Medical CenterWashingtonUSA

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