Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp 1754–1776 | Cite as

A Systematic Review of Published Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys Collecting Behavioral and Biologic Data

  • Lisa G. Johnston
  • Avi J. Hakim
  • Samantha Dittrich
  • Janet Burnett
  • Evelyn Kim
  • Richard G. White
Original Paper

Abstract

Reporting key details of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey implementation and analysis is essential for assessing the quality of RDS surveys. RDS is both a recruitment and analytic method and, as such, it is important to adequately describe both aspects in publications. We extracted data from peer-reviewed literature published through September, 2013 that reported collected biological specimens using RDS. We identified 151 eligible peer-reviewed articles describing 222 surveys conducted in seven regions throughout the world. Most published surveys reported basic implementation information such as survey city, country, year, population sampled, interview method, and final sample size. However, many surveys did not report essential methodological and analytical information for assessing RDS survey quality, including number of recruitment sites, seeds at start and end, maximum number of waves, and whether data were adjusted for network size. Understanding the quality of data collection and analysis in RDS is useful for effectively planning public health service delivery and funding priorities.

Keywords

HIV/AIDS Key populations Respondent driven sampling RDS Biological and behavioral surveillance 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Kate Orroth for conducting the literature search for the STROBE-RDS Guidelines and allowing us to use it for this analysis.

Funding

This Project has been supported in part by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RGW is funded the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement that is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union (MR/J005088/1, G0802414), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium: OPP1084276, and SA Modelling for Policy: #OPP1110334) and UNITAID (4214-LSHTM-Sept15; PO #8477-0-600).

References

  1. 1.
    Des Jarlais DC, Arasteh K, Perlis T, Hagan H, Abdul-Quader A, Heckathorn DD, et al. Convergence of HIV seroprevalence among injecting and non-injecting drug users in New York City. AIDS. 2007;21(2):231–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnston LG, Sabin K, Hien MT, Huong PT, Mai TH, Pham TH. Assessment of respondent driven sampling for recruiting female sex workers in two Vietnamese cities: Reaching the unseen sex worker. J Urban Heal. 2006;83(6 Suppl):i16–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ma X, Zhang Q, He X, Sun W, Yue H, Chen S, et al. Trends in prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men: results of 3 consecutive respondent-driven sampling surveys in Beijing, 2004 through 2006. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;45(5):581–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Malekinejad M, Johnston LG, Kendall C, Kerr LRFS, Rifkin MR, Rutherford GW. Using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in international settings: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(4 Suppl):S105–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Montealegre JR, Johnston LG, Murrill C, Monterroso E. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(7):2313–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lansky A. Assessing the assumptions of respondent-driven sampling in the national HIV behavioral surveillance system among injecting drug users. Open AIDS J. 2012;6:77–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnston LG. Introduction to respondent-driven sampling. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013. http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/EMRPUB_2013_EN_1539.pdf. Accessed 15 Jun 2015.
  8. 8.
    UNAIDS. Guidelines on surveillance among populations most at risk for HIV. 2011 http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2011/20110518_Accessed 15 Jun 2015.
  9. 9.
    UNICEF, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNAIDS. Young key populations at higher risk of HIV in Asia and the Pacific: making the case with strategic information. Bangkok: UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office; 2013. http://www.unicef.org/eapro/Young_key_populations_at_high_risk_of_HIV_in_Asia_Pacific.pdf. Accessed 15 Jun 2015.
  10. 10.
    Heckathorn DD. Respondent-driven sampling: a new approach to the study of hidden populations. Soc Probl. 1997;44(2):174–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heckathorn DD. Extensions of respondent-driven sampling: analyzing continuous variables and controlling for differential recruitment. Sociol Methodol. 2007;37(1):151–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salganik MJ, Heckathorn DD. Sampling and estimation in hidden populations using respondent-driven sampling. Sociol Methodol. 2004;34(1):193–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Volz E, Heckathorn DD. Probability based estimation theory for respondent driven sampling. J Off Stat. 2008;24(1):79–97.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gile KJ. Improved inference for respondent-driven sampling data with application to HIV prevalence estimation. J Am Stat Assoc. 2011;106(493):135–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gile KJ, Johnston LG, Salganik MJ. Diagnostics for respondent-driven sampling. J R Stat Soc. 2015;1(1):241–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salganik MJ. Variance estimation, design effects, and sample size calculations for respondent-driven sampling. J Urban Heal. 2006;83(6 Suppl):i98–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Szwarcwald CL, de Souza Júnior PRB, Damacena GN, Junior AB, Kendall C. Analysis of data collected by RDS among sex workers in 10 Brazilian cities, 2009: estimation of the prevalence of HIV, variance, and design effect. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;57(3 Suppl):S129–35Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McCreesh N, Frost SDW, Seeley J, Katongole J, Tarsh MN, Ndunguse R, et al. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling. Epidemiology. 2012;23(1):138–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goel S, Salganik MJ. Assessing respondent-driven sampling. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107:6743–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wejnert C. An empirical test of respondent-driven sampling: Point estimates, variance, degree measures, and out-of-equilibrium data. Sociol Methodol. 2009;39:73–116.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hafeez S. A review of the proposed STROBE-RDS reporting checklist as an effective tool for assessing the reporting quality of RDS studies from the developing world. London. 2012Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    White RG, Hakim AJ, Salganik MJ, Spiller MW, Johnston LG, Kerr L, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology for respondent-driven sampling studies: “STROBE-RDS” statement. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015;68(12):1463–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vandenhoudt HM, Langat L, Menten J, Odongo F, Oswago S, Luttah G, et al. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among Female Sex Workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vu L, Adebajo S, Tun W, Sheehy M, Karlyn A, Njab J, et al. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: implications for combination prevention. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(2):221–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Merrigan M, Azeez A, Afolabi B, Chabikuli ON, Onyekwena O, Eluwa G, et al. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men having sex with men in Nigeria. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eluwa GI, Strathdee SA, Adebayo SB, Ahonsi B, Adebajo SB. A profile on HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among injecting drug users in Nigeria: Should we be alarmed? Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;127(1–3):65–71.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adebajo SB, Eluwa GI, Allman D, Myers T, Ahonsi BA. Prevalence of internalized homophobia and HIV associated risks among men who have sex with men in Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2012;16(4):21–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johnston L, Saumtally A, Corceal S, Mahadoo I, Oodally F. High HIV and hepatitis C prevalence amongst injecting drug users in Mauritius: findings from a population size estimation and respondent driven sampling survey. Int J Drug Policy. 2011;22(4):252–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johnston LG, Corceal S. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(2):574–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kriitmaa K, Testa A, Osman M, Bozicevic I, Riedner G, Malungu J, et al. HIV prevalence and characteristics of sex work among female sex workers in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. AIDS. 2010;24(2 Suppl):S61–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rispel LC, Metcalf CA, Cloete A, Reddy V, Lombard C. HIV prevalence and risk practices among men who have sex with men in two South African cities. J Acquir immune. 2011;57(1):69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lane T, Raymond HF, Dladla S, Rasethe J, Struthers H, McFarland W, et al. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: Results from the Soweto men’s study. AIDS Behav. 2011;15:626–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Johnston L, O’Bra H, Chopra M, Mathews C, Townsend L, Sabin K, et al. The associations of voluntary counseling and testing acceptance and the perceived likelihood of being HIV-infected among men with multiple sex partners in a South African township. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(4):922–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chopra M, Townsend L, Johnston L, Mathews C, Tomlinson M, Bra HO, et al. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among high-risk heterosexual men with multiple sex partners : use of respondent-driven sampling. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51(1):72–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Townsend L, Rosenthal SR, Parry CDH, Zembe Y, Mathews C, Flisher AJ. Associations between alcohol misuse and risks for HIV infection among men who have multiple female sexual partners in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care. 2010;22(12):1544–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Townsend L, Johnston LG, Flisher AJ, Mathews C, Zembe Y. Effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling to recruit high risk heterosexual men who have multiple female sexual partners: differences in HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviours measured at two time points. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(6):1330–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zembe YZ, Townsend L, Thorson A, Ekström AM. Predictors of inconsistent condom use among a hard to reach population of young women with multiple sexual partners in peri-urban South Africa. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51998.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Townsend L, Zembe Y, Mathews C, Mason-Jones A. Estimating HIV prevalence and HIV-related risk behaviors among heterosexual women who have multiple sex partners using respondent-driven sampling in a high-risk community in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;62(4):457–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Abdelrahim MS. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of female sex workers in Khartoum, North Sudan. AIDS. 2010;24(Suppl 2):S55–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Johnston LG, Holman A, Dahoma M, Miller LA, Kim E, Mussa M, et al. HIV risk and the overlap of injecting drug use and high-risk sexual behaviours among men who have sex with men in Zanzibar (Unguja), Tanzania. Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21(6):485–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dahoma M, Johnston LG, Holman A, Miller LA, Mussa M, Othman A, et al. HIV and related risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Zanzibar, Tanzania: results of a behavioral surveillance survey. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(1):186–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hladik W, Barker J, Ssenkusu JM, Opio A, Tappero JW, Hakim A, et al. HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Kampala, Uganda—a respondent driven sampling survey. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Soliman C, Rahman IA, Shawky S, Bahaa T, Elkamhawi S, El Sattar AA, et al. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of male injection drug users in Cairo, Egypt. AIDS. 2010;24(Suppl 2):S33–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Navadeh S, Mirzazadeh A, Mousavi L, Haghdoost A, Fahimfar N, Sedaghat A. HIV, HSV2 and syphilis prevalence in female sex workers in Kerman, South-East Iran; using respondent-driven sampling. Iran J Public Health. 2012;41(12):60–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mahfoud Z, Afifi R, Ramia S, El Khoury D, Kassak K, El Barbir F, et al. HIV/AIDS among female sex workers, injecting drug users and men who have sex with men in Lebanon: results of the first biobehavioral surveys. AIDS. 2010;24(Suppl 2):S45–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kassak K, Mahfoud Z, Kreidieh K, Shamra S, Afifi R, Ramia S. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Lebanon: Prevalence, risk behaviour and immune status. Sex Health. 2011;8:229–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mahfoud Z, Kassak K, Kreidieh K, Shamra S, Ramia S. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among injecting drug users in Lebanon. Virol J. 2010;7:96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mirzoyan L, Berendes S, Jeffery C, Thomson J, Ben Othman H, Danon L, et al. New evidence on the HIV epidemic in Libya: why countries must implement prevention programs among people who inject drugs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;62(5):577–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Valadez JJ, Berendes S, Jeffery C, Thomson J, Ben Othman H, Danon L, et al. Filling the knowledge gap: measuring HIV prevalence and risk factors among men who have sex with men and female sex workers in Tripoli, Libya. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66701.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johnston LG, Alami K, El Rhilani MH, Karkouri M, Mellouk O, Abadie A, et al. HIV, syphilis and sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Agadir and Marrakesh, Morocco. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89 Suppl 3:iii45–8.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stulhofer A, Chetty A, Rabie RA, Jwehan I, Ramlawi A. The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HIV-related risk-taking behaviors among Palestinian injecting drug users in the East Jerusalem Governorate. J Urban Heal. 2012;89(4):671–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stormer A, Tun W, Guli L, Harxhi A, Bodanovskaia Z, Yakovleva A, et al. An analysis of respondent driven sampling with injection drug users (IDU) in Albania and the Russian Federation. J Urban Heal. 2006;83(6 Suppl):i73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Elda S, Bani R. An analysis of HIV-related risk behaviors of men having sex with men (MSM), using respondent driven sampling (RDS), Albania. Int J Med. 2009;2(2):231–5.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bozicevic I, Lepej SZ, Rode OD, Grgic I, Jankovic P, Dominkovic Z, et al. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and patterns of recent HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Zagreb, Croatia. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(7):539–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bozicevic I, Rode OD, Lepej SZ, Johnston LG, Stulhofer A, Dominkovic Z, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Zagreb, Croatia. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(2):303–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lepej SZ, Vrakela IB, Poljak M, Bozicevic I, Begovac J. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences obtained in a respondent-driven sampling study of men who have sex with men. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 2009;25(12):1335–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mills HL, Colijn C, Vickerman P, Leslie D, Hope V, Hickman M. Respondent driven sampling and community structure in a population of injecting drug users, Bristol, UK. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;126(3):324–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hope VD, Hickman M, Ngui SL, Jones S, Telfer M, Bizzarri M, et al. Measuring the incidence, prevalence and genetic relatedness of hepatitis C infections among a community recruited sample of injecting drug users, using dried blood spots. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:262–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Platt L, Bobrova N, Rhodes T, Uusküla A, Parry JV, Rüütel K, et al. High HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in Estonia: implications for understanding the risk environment. AIDS. 2006;20(16):2120–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Abel-Ollo K, Rahu M, Rajaleid K, Talu A, Ruutel K, Platt L, et al. Knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Estonia. AIDS Care. 2009;21(7):851–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vorobjov S, Uusküla A, Abel-Ollo K, Talu A, Rüütel K, Des Jarlais DC. Comparison of injecting drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia. Harm Reduct J. 2009;6(1):3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Uusküla A, Des Jarlais DC, Kals M, Rüütel K, Abel-Ollo K, Talu A, et al. Expanded syringe exchange programs and reduced HIV infection among new injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):517.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Uusküla A, Johnston LG, Raag M, Trummal A, Talu A, Des Jarlais DC. Evaluating recruitment among female sex workers and injecting drug users at risk for HIV using respondent-driven sampling in Estonia. J Urban Heal. 2010;87(2):304–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Uusküla A, Fischer K, Raudne R, Kilgi H, Krylov R, Salminen M, et al. A study on HIV and hepatitis C virus among commercial sex workers in Tallinn. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84(3):189–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Talu A, Rajaleid K, Abel-Ollo K, Rüütel K, Rahu M, Rhodes T, et al. HIV infection and risk behaviour of primary fentanyl and amphetamine injectors in Tallinn, Estonia: Implications for intervention. Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21:56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Berry M, Wirtz AL, Janayeva A, Ragoza V, Terlikbayeva A, Amirov B, et al. Risk factors for HIV and unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43071.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zohrabyan L, Johnston LG, Scutelniciuc O, Iovita A, Todirascu L, Costin T, et al. Determinants of HIV infection among female sex workers in two cities in the Republic of Moldova: the role of injection drug use and sexual risk. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(8):2588–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Busza J, Douthwaite M, Bani R, Scutelniciuc O, Preda M, Simic D. Injecting behaviour and service use among young injectors in Albania, Moldova, Romania and Serbia. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;24(5):423–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zohrabyan L, Johnston L, Scutelniciuc O, Iovita A, Todirascu L, Costin T, et al. HIV, hepatitis and syphilis prevalence and correlates of condom use during anal sex among men who have sex with men in the Republic of Moldova. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24:357–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Baćak V, Laušević D, Mugoša B, Vratnica Z, Terzić N. Hepatitis C virus infection and related risk factors among injection drug users in Montenegro. Eur Addict Res. 2013;19:68–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Judd A, Rhodes T, Johnston LG, Platt L, Andjelkovic V, Simić D, et al. Improving survey methods in sero-epidemiological studies of injecting drug users: a case example of two cross sectional surveys in Serbia and Montenegro. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Eritsyan KU, Levina OS, White E, Smolskaya TT, Heimer R. HIV prevalence and risk behavior among injection drug users and their sex partners in two Russian cities. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 2013;29(4):687–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Niccolai LM, Shcherbakova IS, Toussova OV, Kozlov AP, Heimer R. The potential for bridging of HIV transmission in the russian federation: Sex risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among drug users (DUs) and their non-du sex partners. J Urban Heal. 2009;86(1):131–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Paintsil E, Verevochkin SV, Dukhovlinova E, Niccolai L, Barbour R, White E, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection among drug injectors in St Petersburg, Russia: Social and molecular epidemiology of an endemic infection. Addiction. 2009;104:1881–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Iguchi MY, Ober AJ, Berry SH, Fain T, Heckathorn DD, Gorbach PM, et al. Simultaneous recruitment of drug users and men who have sex with men in the united states and Russia using respondent-driven sampling: Sampling methods and implications. J Urban Heal. 2009;86(1):5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Djonic D, Djuric M, Bassioni-Stamenic F, McFarland W, Knezevic T, Nikolic S, et al. HIV-related risk behaviors among roma youth in Serbia: Results of two community based surveys. J Adolesc Heal. 2013;52(2):234–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Taran YS, Johnston LG, Pohorila NB, Saliuk TO. Correlates of HIV risk among injecting drug users in sixteen Ukrainian cities. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(1):65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pando MA, Balán IC, Marone R, Dolezal C, Leu CS, Squiquera L, et al. HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: High HIV and HPV infection. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39834.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pando M, Marone R, Balan I, Dolezal C, Squiquera L, Picconi A, et al. HIV and STI prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Retrovirology. BioMed Central; 2009;6 Suppl 3:P103.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Salani Mota RM, Sansigolo Kerr LRF, Kendall C, Pinho A, de Mello MB, Dourado I, et al. Reliability of self-report of HIV status among men who have sex with men in Brazil. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;57:S153–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kerr LRFS, Mota RS, Kendall C, Pinho ADA, Mello MB, Guimarães MDC, et al. HIV among MSM in a large middle-income country. AIDS. 2013;27(3):427–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bermúdez-Aza EH, Kerr LRFS, Kendall C, Pinho ADA, Mello MB, Mota RS, et al. Antiretroviral drug resistance in a respondent-driven sample of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Brazil. J Adquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;57:S186–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Damacena GN, Szwarcwald CL, de Souza Júnior PRB, Dourado I. Risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among female sex workers in 10 Brazilian cities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;57 Suppl 3:S144–52Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tun W, de Mello M, Pinho A, Chinaglia M, Diaz J. Sexual risk behaviours and HIV seroprevalence among male sex workers who have sex with men and non-sex workers in Campinas, Brazil. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:455–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Martins TA, Kerr LRFS, Macena RHM, Mota RS, Carneiro KL, Gondim RC, et al. Travestis, an unexplored population at risk of HIV in a large metropolis of northeast Brazil: a respondent-driven sampling survey. AIDS Care. 2013;25(5):606–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kendall C, Kerr LRFS, Gondim RC, Werneck GL, Macena RHM, Pontes MK, et al. An empirical comparison of respondent-driven sampling, time location sampling, and snowball sampling for behavioral surveillance in men who have sex with men, Fortaleza, Brazil. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(4 Suppl):S97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Johnston LG, Vaillant TC, Dolores Y, Vales HM. HIV, hepatitis B/C and syphilis prevalence and risk behaviors among gay, transsexuals and men who have sex with men, Dominican Republic. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(4):313–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Creswell J, Guardado ME, Lee J, Nieto AI, Kim AA, Monterroso E, et al. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dennis AM, Murillo W, de Maria Hernandez F, Guardado ME, Nieto AI, Lorenzana de Rivera I, et al. Social network-based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high-risk individuals in El Salvador. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(1):135–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Johnston LG, Paz-Bailey G, Morales-Miranda S, Morgan M, Alvarez B, Hickman L, et al. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Honduras: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(1):5–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Silva-Santisteban A, Raymond HF, Salazar X, Villayzan J, Leon S, McFarland W, et al. Understanding the HIV/AIDS epidemic in transgender women of lima, peru: Results from a sero-epidemiologic study using respondent driven sampling. AIDS Behav. 2012;16:872–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Moyer LB, Brouwer KC, Brodine SK, Ramos R, Lozada R, Cruz MF, et al. Barriers and missed opportunities to HIV testing among injection drug users in two Mexico–US border cities. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2008;27:39–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Deiss RG, Brouwer KC, Loza O, Lozada RM, Ramos R, Cruz MAF, et al. High-risk sexual and drug using behaviors among male injection drug users who have sex with men in 2 Mexico-US border cities. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(3):243–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Philbin M, Pollini RA, Ramos R, Lozada R, Brouwer KC, Ramos ME, et al. Shooting gallery attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: correlates, prevention opportunities, and the role of the environment. AIDS Behav. 2008;12:552–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Frost SDW, Brouwer KC, Firestone Cruz MA, Ramos R, Ramos ME, Lozada RM, et al. Respondent-driven sampling of injection drug users in two U.S.-Mexico border cities: recruitment dynamics and impact on estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence. J Urban Heal. 2006;83(1):83–97.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    White EF, Garfein RS, Brouwer KC, Lozada R, Ramos R, Firestone-Cruz M, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection among injection drug users in two Mexican cities bordering the US. Salud Publica Mex. 2007;49(3):165–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Baumbach JP, Foster LN, Mueller M, Cruz MF, Arbona S, Melville S, et al. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States-Mexico border. Harm Reduct J. 2008;5(1):33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rusch ML, Lozada R, Pollini RA, Vera A, Patterson TL, Case P, et al. Polydrug use among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico: correlates of methamphetamine use and route of administration by gender. J Urban Heal. 2009;86(5):760–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Garfein RS, Lozada R, Liu L, Laniado-Laborin R, Rodwell TC, Deiss R, et al. High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13(5):626–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Strathdee SA, Lozada R, Ojeda VD, Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Vera A, et al. Differential effects of migration and deportation on HIV infection among male and female injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. PLoS One. 2008;3(7):e2690.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Brouwer KC, Rusch ML, Weeks JR, Lozada R, Vera A, Magis-Rodríguez C, et al. Spatial epidemiology of HIV among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Ann Assoc Am Geogr. 2012;102(5):1190–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Abramovitz D, Volz EM, Strathdee SA, Patterson TL, Vera A, Frost SDW. Using respondent-driven sampling in a hidden population at risk of HIV infection: who do HIV positive recruiters recruit? Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36(12):750–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stephens DB, Havens JR. Predictors of alcohol use among rural drug users after disclosure of hepatitis C virus status. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2013;74:386–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Boodram B, Golub ET, Ouellet LJ. Socio-behavioral and geographic correlates of prevalent hepatitis C virus infection among young injection drug users in metropolitan Baltimore and Chicago. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;111(1–2):136–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Villanti AC, German D, Sifakis F, Flynn C, Holtgrave DR. Smoking, self-reported HIV and HIV risk behaviors in a respondent-driven sample of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland: the BeSure Study. AIDS Educ Prev. 2012;24(2):132–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mimiaga MJ, Reisner SL, Bland S, Skeer M, Cranston K, Isenberg D, et al. Health system and personal barriers resulting in decreased utilization of HIV and STD testing services among at-risk black men who have sex with men in Massachusetts. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(10):825–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mimiaga MJ, Reisner SL, Cranston K, Isenberg D, Bright D, Daffin G, et al. Sexual mixing patterns and partner characteristics of black MSM in Massachusetts at increased risk for HIV infection and transmission. J Urban Heal. 2009;86(4):602–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Risser JMH, Padgett P, Wolverton M, Risser WL. Relationship between heterosexual anal sex, injection drug use and HIV infection among black men and women. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:310–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    King WD, Larkins S, Hucks-Ortiz C, Wang P-C, Gorbach PM, Veniegas R, et al. Factors associated with HIV viral load in a respondent driven sample in Los Angeles. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(1):145–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shoptaw S, Weiss RE, Munjas B, Hucks-Ortiz C, Young SD, Larkins S, et al. Homonegativity, substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and HIV status in poor and ethnic men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. J Urban Heal. 2009;86(Suppl 1):77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gorbach PM, Murphy R, Weiss RE, Hucks-Ortiz C, Shoptaw S. Bridging sexual boundaries: Men who have sex with men and women in a street-based sample in Los Angeles. J Urban Heal. 2009;86(1):63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gelpí-Acosta C, Hagan H, Jenness SM, Wendel T, Neaigus A. Sexual and injection related risks in Puerto Rican-born injection drug users living in New York City: a mixed methods analysis. Harm Reduct J. 2011;8(1):28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jenness SM, Begier EM, Neaigus A, Murrill CS, Wendel T, Hagan H. Unprotected anal intercourse and sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk heterosexual women. Am J Public Health. 2011;101(4):745–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jenness SM, Neaigus A, Murrill CS, Wendel T, Forgione L, Hagan H. Estimated HIV incidence among high-risk heterosexuals in New York City, 2007. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56(2):193–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jenness SM, Murrill CS, Liu K-L, Wendel T, Begier E, Hagan H. Missed opportunities for HIV testing among high-risk heterosexuals. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36(12):704–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jenness SM, Kobrak P, Wendel T, Neaigus A, Murrill CS, Hagan H. Patterns of exchange sex and HIV infection in high-risk heterosexual men and women. J Urban Heal. 2011;88(2):329–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jenness SM, Neaigus A, Hagan H, Murrill CS, Wendel T. Heterosexual HIV and sexual partnerships between injection drug users and noninjection drug users. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;24(3):175–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hagan H, Jenness SM, Wendel T, Murrill CR, Neaigus A, Gelpi-Acosta C. Herpes simplex virus type 2 associated with HIV infection among New York heterosexuals living in high-risk areas. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21(8):580–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Abdul-Quader AS, Heckathorn DD, McKnight C, Bramson H, Nemeth C, Sabin K, et al. Effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling for recruiting drug users in New York City: findings from a pilot study. J Urban Heal. 2006;83(3):459–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    McKnight C, Des Jarlais D, Bramson H, Tower L, Abdul-Quader AS, Nemeth C, et al. Respondent-driven sampling in a study of drug users in New York City: notes from the field. J Urban Heal. 2006;83(6 Suppl):i54–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    McCoy SI, Shiu K, Martz TE, Smith CD, Mattox L, Gluth DR, et al. Improving the efficiency of HIV testing with peer recruitment, financial incentives, and the involvement of persons living with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(2):e56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Garfein RS, Rondinelli A, Barnes RFW, Cuevas J, Metzner M, Velasquez M, et al. HCV infection prevalence lower than expected among 18-40-year-old injection drug users in San Diego, CA. J Urban Heal. 2013;90(3):516–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wei C, McFarland W, Colfax GN, Fuqua V, Raymond HF. Reaching black men who have sex with men: a comparison between respondent-driven sampling and time-location sampling. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(8):622–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Burt RD, Thiede H. Evaluating consistency in repeat surveys of injection drug users recruited by respondent-driven sampling in the Seattle area: results from the NHBS-IDU1 and NHBS-IDU2 surveys. Ann Epidemiol. 2012;22(5):354–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Magnus M, Kuo I, Shelley K, Rawls A, Peterson J, Montanez L, et al. Risk factors driving the emergence of a generalized heterosexual HIV epidemic in Washington, District of Columbia networks at risk. AIDS. November 2008;2009(23):1277–84.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Magnus M, Kuo I, Phillips G, Rawls A, Peterson J, Montanez L, et al. Differing HIV risks and prevention needs among men and women injection drug users (IDU) in the District of Columbia. J Urban Heal. 2013;90(1):157–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Johnston LG, Khanam R, Reza M, Khan SI, Banu S, Alam MS, et al. The effectiveness of respondent driven sampling for recruiting males who have sex with males in Dhaka, Bangladesh. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(2):294–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mahanta J, Medhi GK, Paranjape RS, Roy N, Kohli A, Akoijam BS, et al. Injecting and sexual risk behaviours, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence in injecting drug users in three states in India. AIDS. 2008;22(Suppl 5):S59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK, Sifakis F, Mehta SH, Vasudevan CK, Balakrishnan P, et al. The emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: geographic diffusion and bisexual concurrency. AIDS Behav. 2010;14:1001–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Barua P, Jagadish M, Kumar MG, Jayesh D, Ramesh P, Gay T. Sexual activity as a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among the female sex workers in Nagaland. Indian J Med Res. 2012.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shahmanesh M, Cowan F, Wayal S, Copas A, Patel V, Mabey D. The burden and determinants of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sample of female sex workers in Goa, India. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85(1):50–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shahmanesh M, Wayal S, Copas A, Patel V, Mabey D, Cowan F. A study comparing sexually transmitted infections and HIV among ex-red-light district and non-red-light district sex workers after the demolition of Baina red-light district. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52(2):253–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hawkes S, Collumbien M, Platt L, Lalji N, Rizvi N, Andreasen A, et al. HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men, transgenders and women selling sex in two cities in Pakistan: a cross-sectional prevalence survey. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85 Suppl 2:ii8–16.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Manopaiboon C, Prybylski D, Subhachaturas W, Tanpradech S, Suksripanich O, Siangphoe U, et al. Unexpectedly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand in a respondent-driven sampling survey. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(1):34–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Li X, Lu H, Raymond HF, Sun Y, Jia Y, He X, et al. Untested and undiagnosed: barriers to HIV testing among men who have sex with men, Beijing, China. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:187–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ma X-Y, Zhang Q-Y, He X, Zhao J-K, Li Y, Sun W-D, et al. Epidemiological study on the status of HIV/STDs and relative behaviors among MSM in Beijing. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007;28(9):851–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Fan S, Lu H, Ma X, Sun Y, He X, Li C, et al. Behavioral and serologic survey of men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: implication for HIV intervention. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(3):148–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Zhang L, Ding X, Lu R, Feng L, Li X, Xiao Y, et al. Predictors of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men in a chinese metropolitan city: Comparison of risks among students and non-students. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37211.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lin P, Wang M, Li Y, Zhang Q, Yang F, Zhao J. Detoxification center-based sampling missed a subgroup of higher risk drug users, a case from Guangdong, China. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35189.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Li Y, Detels R, Lin P, Fu X, Deng Z, Liu Y, et al. Prevalence of HIV and STIs and associated risk factors among female sex workers in Guangdong Province, China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53(Suppl 1):S48–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Zhong F, Lin P, Xu H, Wang Y, Wang M, He Q, et al. Possible increase in HIV and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou, China: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(1):1058–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ruan S, Yang H, Zhu Y, Wang M, Ma Y, Zhao J, et al. Rising HIV prevalence among married and unmarried among men who have sex with men: Jinan, China. AIDS Behav. 2009;13:671–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ruan S, Yang H, Zhu Y, Ma Y, Li J, Zhao J, et al. HIV prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men, Jinan, China. AIDS Behav. 2008 May;12(3):469–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Liao M, Nie X, Pan R, Wang C, Ruan S, Zhang C, et al. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34085.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Weir SS, Merli MG, Li J, Gandhi AD, Neely WW, Edwards JK, et al. A comparison of respondent-driven and venue-based sampling of female sex workers in Liuzhou, China. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(Suppl 2):i95–101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Li J, Chen X-S, Merli MG, Weir SS, Henderson GE. Systematic differences in risk behaviors and syphilis prevalence across types of female sex workers: a preliminary study in Liuzhou, China. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39(3):195–200.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hao C, Yan H, Yang H, Huan X, Guan W, Xu X, et al. The incidence of syphilis, HIV and HCV and associated factors in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Nanjing, China. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:199–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Tao X, Gai R, Zhang N, Zheng W, Zhang X, Xu A, et al. HIV infection and mental health of “money boys”: a pilot study in Shandong Province, China. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:358–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Morineau G, Bollen L, Syafitri RI, Nurjannah N, Mustikawati DE, Magnani R. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among injecting drug users in six Indonesian cities implications for future HIV prevention programs. Harm Reduct J. 2012;9(1):37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Colby D, Minh TT, Toan TT. Down on the farm: homosexual behaviour, HIV risk and HIV prevalence in rural communities in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:439–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wejnert C, Pham H, Krishna N, Le B, DiNenno E. Estimating design effect and calculating sample size for respondent-driven sampling studies of injection drug users in the United States. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(4):797–806.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Johnston LG, Chen Y-H, Silva-Santisteban A, Raymond HF. An empirical examination of respondent driven sampling design effects among HIV risk groups from studies conducted around the world. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(6):2202–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Heckathorn DD. Respondent-driven sampling II: deriving valid population estimates from chain-referral samples of hidden populations. Soc Probl. 2002;49(1):11–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gile KJ, Handcock MS. Respondent-driven sampling: an assessment of current methodology. Sociol Methodol. 2010;40(1):285–327.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Johnston LG, Whitehead S, Simic-Lawson M, Kendall C. Formative research to optimize respondent-driven sampling surveys among hard-to-reach populations in HIV behavioral and biological surveillance: lessons learned from four case studies. AIDS Care. 2010;22:784–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Johnston LG, Luthra RR. Analyzing data in RDS. In: Tyldum G, Johnston L, editors. Applying respondent driven sampling to migrant populations lessons from the field. Palgrave Pivot; 2014Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    UNICEF. Opportunity in crisis: preventing HIV from early adolescence to young adulthood. Geneva. 2011. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Opportunity_in_Crisis-Report_EN_052711.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2016
  158. 158.
    Johnston LG, Malekinejad M, Kendall C, Iuppa IM, Rutherford GW. Implementation challenges to using respondent-driven sampling methodology for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance: field experiences in international settings. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(4 Suppl):S131–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa G. Johnston
    • 1
    • 2
  • Avi J. Hakim
    • 3
  • Samantha Dittrich
    • 3
  • Janet Burnett
    • 3
  • Evelyn Kim
    • 3
  • Richard G. White
    • 4
  1. 1.University of California, San Francisco, Global Health SciencesSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.School of Public Health and Tropical MedicineTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Division of Global HIV/AIDSUS Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.CMMID and Faculty of Epidemiology & Population HealthLondon School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineLondonUK

Personalised recommendations