Long-Term Cigarette Smoking Trajectories Among HIV-Seropositive and Seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
To examine the association between demographic characteristics and long-term smoking trajectory group membership among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). A cohort of 6552 MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were asked detailed information about their smoking history since their last follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine smoking behavior and identify trajectory group membership. Because participants enrolled after 2001 were more likely to be younger, HIV-seronegative, non-Hispanic black, and have a high school diploma or less, we also assessed time of enrollment in our analysis. Participants were grouped into 4 distinct smoking trajectory groups: persistent nonsmoker (n = 3737 [55.9 %]), persistent light smoker (n = 663 [11.0 %]), heavy smoker to nonsmoker (n = 531 [10.0 %]), and persistent heavy smoker (n = 1604 [23.1 %]). Compared with persistent nonsmokers, persistent heavy smokers were associated with being enrolled in 2001 and later (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.35; 95 % CI 2.12–2.58), having a high school diploma or less (aOR 3.22; 95 % CI 3.05–3.39), and being HIV-seropositive (aOR 1.17; 95 % CI 1.01–1.34). These associations were statistically significant across all trajectory groups for time of enrollment and education but not for HIV serostatus. The overall decrease of smoking as shown by our trajectory groups is consistent with the national trend. Characteristics associated with smoking group trajectory membership should be considered in the development of targeted smoking cessation interventions among MSM and people living with HIV.
KeywordsMACS Smoking Trajectories PLWH
Data in this manuscript were collected by the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with centers at Baltimore (U01-AI35042): The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Joseph B. Margolick (PI), Barbara Crain, Adrian Dobs, Homayoon Farzadegan, Joel Gallant, Lisette Johnson-Hill, Cynthia Munro, Michael W. Plankey, Ned Sacktor, James Shepard, Chloe Thio; Chicago (U01-AI35039): Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, and Cook County Bureau of Health Services: Steven M. Wolinsky (PI), John P. Phair, Sheila Badri, Maurice O’Gorman, David Ostrow, Frank Palella, Ann Ragin; Los Angeles(U01-AI35040): University of California, UCLA Schools of Public Health and Medicine: Roger Detels (PI), Otoniel Martínez-Maza (Co-P I), Aaron Aronow, Robert Bolan, Elizabeth Breen, Anthony Butch, Beth Jamieson, Eric N. Miller, John Oishi, Harry Vinters, Dorothy Wiley, Mallory Witt, Otto Yang, Stephen Young, Zuo Feng Zhang; Pittsburgh (U01-AI35041): University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health: Charles R. Rinaldo (PI), Lawrence A. Kingsley (Co-PI), James T. Becker, Ross D. Cranston, Jeremy J. Martinson, John W. Mellors, Anthony J. Silvestre, Ronald D. Stall; and the Data Coordinating Center (UM1-AI35043): The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health: Lisa P. Jacobson (PI), Alvaro Munoz (Co-PI), Alison, Abraham, Keri Althoff, Christopher Cox, Jennifer Deal, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Priya Duggal, Janet Schollenberger, Eric C. Seaberg, Sol Su, Pamela Surkan. The MACS is funded primarily by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), with additional co-funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Targeted supplemental funding for specific projects was also provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institute on Deafness and Communication Disorders (NIDCD). MACS data collection is also supported by UL1-TR000424 (JHU CTSA). Website located at http://www.statepi.jhsph.edu/macs/macs.html. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
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