Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1499–1513 | Cite as

Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support

  • Sarah K. Calabrese
  • Kristen Underhill
  • Valerie A. Earnshaw
  • Nathan B. Hansen
  • Trace S. Kershaw
  • Manya Magnus
  • Douglas S. Krakower
  • Kenneth H. Mayer
  • Joseph R. Betancourt
  • John F. Dovidio
Original Paper

Abstract

Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting (“beneficiary”) and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

Keywords

HIV Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) Framing Public opinion Prejudice Black/African American Men who have sex with men (MSM) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Award Numbers K01-MH103080 and P30-MH062294 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the Yale University Fund for Lesbian and Gay Studies Award. Kristen Underhill and Douglas S. Krakower were supported by NIMH Award Numbers K01-MH093273 and K23-MH098795, respectively. Valerie A. Earnshaw was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Award Number K12-HS022986. Mentorship was received from the Social and Behavioral Sciences Research Network (SBSRN) of the National Institutes of Health Centers for AIDS Research (2013 SBSRN National Scientific Meeting Mentoring Day) and P30-AI060354. The content of this article is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIMH, the SBSRN, the National Institutes of Health, the AHRQ, or Yale Lesbian and Gay Studies. The authors wish to thank Valen Grandelski for programming the survey, Suzanne Horowitz for her technical assistance on the survey, and Adam Eldahan for his support with reference management software and proofreading. The authors are also grateful to the individuals who generously contributed their time and effort by participating in this study.

Supplementary material

10461_2016_1318_MOESM1_ESM.docx (589 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 590 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Schneider A, Ingram H. Social construction of target populations—implications for politics and policy. Am Polit Sci Rev. 1993;87(2):334–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schneider A, Sidney M. What is next for policy design and social construction theory? Policy Stud J. 2009;37(1):103–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Donovan MC. Social constructions of people with AIDS: target populations and United States policy, 1981-1990. Rev Policy Res. 1993;12(3/4):3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Institute of Medicine. The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2011.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grant RM, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu A, Amico KR, Mehrotra M, et al. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(9):820–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(5):399–410.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasamai P, Sangkum U, Mock PA, Leethochawalit M, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9883):2083–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(27):2587–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thigpen MC, Kebaabetswe PM, Paxton LA, Smith DK, Rose CE, Segolodi TM, et al. Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(5):423–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCormack S, Dunn DT, Desai M, Dolling DI, Gafos M, Gilson R, et al. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2016;387(10013):53–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Molina JM, Capitant C, Spire B, Pialoux G, Cotte L, Charreau I, et al. On-demand preexposure prophylaxis in men at high risk for HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(23):2237–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA news release: FDA approves first drug for reducing the risk of sexually acquired HIV infection. 2012. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm312210.htm.
  13. 13.
    U.S. Public Health Service. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States: a clinical practice guideline. 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/prepguidelines2014.pdf.
  14. 14.
    Smith DK, Van Handel M, Wolitski RJ, Stryker JE, Hall HI, Prejean J, et al. Vital signs: estimated percentages and numbers of adults with indications for preexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition - United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(46):1291–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krakower DS, Jain S, Mayer KH. Antiretrovirals for primary HIV prevention: the current status of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2015;12(1):127–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mayer KH, Ramjee G. The current status of the use of oral medication to prevent HIV transmission. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2015;10(4):226–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mayer KH, Krakower DS. If PrEP decreases HIV transmission, what is impeding its uptake? Clin Infect Dis. 2015 (Advance online publication).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Horberg M, Raymond B. Financial policy issues for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: cost and access to insurance. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(1 Suppl 2):S125–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mayer KH, Levine K, Grasso C, Krakower DS, Mimiaga M. Recent increases in PrEP utilization at a Boston community health center 2011–2014: transition from research to clinical practice. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2015; Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burstein P. The impact of public opinion on public policy: a review and an agenda. Polit Res Q. 2003;56(1):29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winter N. Dangerous frames: how ideas about race and gender shape public opinion. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press; 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilliam FD, Jr. The ‘welfare queen’ experiment: how viewers react to images of African-American mothers on welfare. Nieman Reports. 1999. http://www.nieman.harvard.edu/reportsitem.aspx?id=102223.
  23. 23.
    Gilliam FD Jr, Iyengar S. Prime suspects: the influence of local television news on the viewing public. Am J Pol Sci. 2000;44(3):560–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harell A, Soroka S, Ladner K. Public opinion, prejudice and the racialization of welfare in Canada. Ethn Racial Stud. 2014;37(14):2580–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hurwitz J, Peffley M. Playing the race card in the post-Willie Horton era: the impact of racialized code words on support for punitive crime policy. Public Opin Q. 2005;69(1):99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kennedy B, Fisher E, Bailey C. Framing in race-conscious, antipoverty advocacy: a science-based guide to delivering your most persuasive message. Clearinghouse Rev J on Poverty L. 2010;43(9–10):408–21.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-report-vol-25.pdf.
  28. 28.
    Ford CL, Whetten KD, Hall SA, Kaufman JS, Thrasher AD. Black sexuality, social construction, and research targeting ‘The Down Low’ (‘The DL’). Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17(3):209–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hequembourg AL, Brallier SA. An exploration of sexual minority stress across the lines of gender and sexual identity. J Homosex. 2009;56(3):273–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bowleg L, Teti M, Massie JS, Patel A, Malebranche DJ, Tschann JM. ‘What does it take to be a man? What is a real man?’: ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men. Cult Health Sex. 2011;13(5):545–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Herek GM, Capitanio JP. AIDS stigma and sexual prejudice. Am Behav Sci. 1999;42(7):1130–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rosenberg ES, Millett GA, Sullivan PS, Del Rio C, Curran JW. Understanding the HIV disparities between black and white men who have sex with men in the USA using the HIV care continuum: a modeling study. The Lancet HIV. 2014;1(3):e112–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohen SE, Vittinghoff E, Bacon O, Doblecki-Lewis S, Postle BS, Feaster DJ, et al. High interest in pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-infection: baseline data from the US PrEP demonstration Project. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;68(4):439–48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wade Taylor S, Mayer KH, Elsesser SM, Mimiaga MJ, O’Cleirigh C, Safren SA. Optimizing content for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) counseling for men who have sex with men: Perspectives of PrEP users and high-risk PrEP naive men. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(5):871–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aizenman N. New guidelines for gay men: a daily anti-HIV pill. National Public Radio. July 11, 2014.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stern MJ. There is a daily pill that prevents HIV. Gay men should take it. Slate. January 6, 2014.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoff CC, Chakravarty D, Bircher AE, Campbell CK, Grisham K, Neilands TB, et al. Attitudes towards PrEP and anticipated condom use among concordant HIV-negative and HIV-discordant male couples. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(7):408–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brooks RA, Landovitz RJ, Regan R, Lee S-J, Allen VC, Jr. Perceptions of and intentions to adopt HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among black men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. Int J STD AIDS. 2015;26(14):1040–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eaton LA, Driffin DD, Bauermeister J, Smith H, Conway-Washington C. Minimal awareness and stalled uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among at risk, HIV-negative, Black men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(8):423–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mutchler MG, McDavitt B, Ghani MA, Nogg K, Winder TJ, Soto JK. Getting PrEPared for HIV prevention navigation: young Black gay men talk about HIV prevention in the biomedical era. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(9):490–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reynolds D. In their own words: Men of color explain why they take PrEP. Advocate.com. October 22, 2014.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rodriguez-Jimenez J. Are Black gay men on board with using PrEP? HIV Plus. July 29, 2014.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dovidio JF, Hewstone M, Glick P, Esses VM. Prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination: theoretical and empirical overview. In: Dovidio JF, Hewstone M, Glick P, Esses VM, editors. The SAGE handbook of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.; 2010.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Buhrmester M, Kwang T, Gosling SD. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk: a new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011;6(1):3–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mason W, Suri S. Conducting behavioral research on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Behav Res Methods. 2012;44(1):1–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brooks RA, Kaplan RL, Lieber E, Landovitz RJ, Lee SJ, Leibowitz AA. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant male relationships. AIDS Care. 2011;23(9):1136–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saberi P, Gamarel KE, Neilands TB, Comfort M, Sheon N, Darbes LA, et al. Ambiguity, ambivalence, and apprehensions of taking HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis among male couples in San Francisco: a mixed methods study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e50061.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Smith DK, Toledo L, Smith DJ, Adams MA, Rothenberg R. Attitudes and program preferences of African American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). AIDS Educ Prev. 2012;24(5):408–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Galindo GR, Walker JJ, Hazelton P, Lane T, Steward WT, Morin SF, et al. Community member perspectives from transgender women and men who have sex with men on pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: implications for implementation. Implement Sci. 2012;7:116.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    White JM, Mimiaga MJ, Krakower DS, Mayer KH. Evolution of Massachusetts physician attitudes, knowledge, and experience regarding the use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(7):395–405.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Arnold EA, Hazelton P, Lane T, Christopoulos KA, Galindo GR, Steward WT, et al. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(7):e40603.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tripathi A, Ogbuanu C, Monger M, Gibson JJ, Duffus WA. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection: healthcare providers’ knowledge, perception, and willingness to adopt future implementation in the southern US. South Med J. 2012;105(4):199–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tellalian D, Maznavi K, Bredeek UF, Hardy WD. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection: results of a survey of HIV healthcare providers evaluating their knowledge, attitudes, and prescribing practices. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(10):553–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Karris MY, Beekmann SE, Mehta SR, Anderson CM, Polgreen PM. Are we prepped for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP)? Provider opinions on the real-world use of PrEP in the United States and Canada. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(5):704–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Puro V, Palummieri A, De Carli G, Piselli P, Ippolito G. Attitude towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:217.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Senn H, Wilton J, Sharma M, Fowler S, Tan DH. Knowledge of and opinions on HIV preexposure prophylaxis among front-line service providers at Canadian AIDS service organizations. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29(9):1183–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wheelock A, Eisingerich AB, Gomez GB, Gray E, Dybul MR, Piot P. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2012;2(4):e001234.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McConahay JB. Modern racism, ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale. In: Dovidio JF, Gaertner SL, editors. Prejudice, discrimination, and racism. San Diego: Academic Press; 1986. p. 91–125.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kite ME, Deaux K. Attitudes toward homosexuality: assessment and behavioral consequences. Basic Appl Soc Psych. 1986;7(2):137–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    U.S. Census Bureau. People: QuickFacts; 2013. http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/RHI125213/00.
  62. 62.
    Ward BW, Dahlhamer JM, Galinsky AM, Joestl SS. Sexual orientation and health among U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey. National Health Statistics Reports. 2014; No. 77. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr077.pdf.
  63. 63.
    Los Angeles County District 3 Supervisor’s Office. Board passes Kuehl PrEP motion to help stop spread of HIV. 2015. http://supervisorkuehl.com/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep/.
  64. 64.
    New York State Governor’s Office. Governor Cuomo announces program to protect high-risk individuals from HIV. 2015. https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/governor-cuomo-announces-program-protect-high-risk-individuals-hiv.
  65. 65.
    Washington State Department of Health. Pre-exposure prophylaxis drug assistance program (PrEP DAP). 2014. http://www.doh.wa.gov/YouandYourFamily/IllnessandDisease/HIVAIDS/HIVCareClientServices/PrEPDAP.
  66. 66.
  67. 67.
  68. 68.
    Grant RM, Weber S, Glidden DV, Liu A, Buchbinder S, Cohen R, et al. Scale-up of preexposure prophylaxis in San Francisco to impact HIV incidence. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 2015; Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bush S, Ng L, Magnuson D, Piontkowsky D, Mera R. Significant uptake of Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis utilization in the U.S. in 2014. 10th International Conference on HIV Treatment and Prevention Adherence; 2015; Miami, FL.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bartholomew BP. Kaiser Permanente reverses coverage change for HIV drugs, but cost concerns remain with other insurers. The San Francisco Examiner. February 23, 2015.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Boerner H. This story made an insurance company cover AIDS drugs. The Daily Beast. May 18, 2015.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jacobs DB, Sommers BD. Using drugs to discriminate–adverse selection in the insurance marketplace. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(5):399–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Newman E. Capping coinsurance payments for PrEP and HIV meds. BETA. April 29, 2015.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stevelee. Health insurance company stops covering Truvada as PrEP. LGBT Weekly. May 7, 2015.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Grindley L. Why LGBT Americans are leery of Supreme Court’s Hobby Lobby ruling. The Advocate. June 30, 2014.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Maza C. How the Hobby Lobby decision could undermine the fight against HIV/AIDS. Media Matters for America. July 1, 2014.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Moriarty K. Will the Hobby Lobby decision open the door for HIV-related health insurance restrictions? The Body. July 17, 2014.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Myers JE, Sepkowitz KA. A pill for HIV prevention: Deja vu all over again? Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(11):1604–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Women’s preventive services coverage, non-profit religious organizations, and closely-held for-profit entities. 2015. http://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Resources/Fact-Sheets-and-FAQs/womens-preven-02012013.html.
  80. 80.
    Beyrer C, Baral SD, van Griensven F, Goodreau SM, Chariyalertsak S, Wirtz AL, et al. Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet. 2012;380(9839):367–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McCune JQ Jr. Sexual discretion: Black masculinity and the politics of passing. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tapia R, McCune J, Brody JD. Dangerous profiling: recent media representations of Black male sexuality. In: Barnes SL, editor. Black sexualities. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 2009. p. 119–137.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Millett GA, Peterson JL, Flores SA, Hart TA, Jeffries WL, Wilson PA, et al. Comparisons of disparities and risks of HIV infection in black and other men who have sex with men in Canada, UK, and USA: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2012;380(9839):341–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Golub SA, Gamarel KE, Surace A. Demographic differences in PrEP-related stereotypes: implications for implementation. AIDS Behav. 2015;17(2):737–47.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    World Health Organization. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/earlyrelease-arv/en/.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gomez GB, Borquez A, Case KK, Wheelock A, Vassall A, Hankins C. The cost and impact of scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness modelling studies. PLoS Med. 2013;10(3):e1001401.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kessler J, Myers JE, Nucifora KA, Mensah N, Toohey C, Khademi A, et al. Evaluating the impact of prioritization of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis in New York. AIDS. 2014;28(18):2683–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dovidio JF, Gaertner SL. Intergroup bias. In: Fiske ST, Gilbert DT, Lindzey G, editors. Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. 2. Hoboken: Wiley; 2010. p. 1084–121.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lieb S, Fallon SJ, Friedman SR, Thompson DR, Gates GJ, Liberti TM, et al. Statewide estimation of racial/ethnic populations of men who have sex with men in the U.S. Public Health Rep. 2011;126(1):60–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ghavami N, Peplau LA. An intersectional analysis of gender and ethnic stereotypes: testing three hypotheses. Psychol Women Q. 2013;37(1):113–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Calabrese SK, Earnshaw VA, Underhill K, Hansen NB, Dovidio JF. The impact of patient race on clinical decisions related to prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): assumptions about sexual risk compensation and implications for access. AIDS Behav. 2014;18(2):226–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Field A. Discovering statistics using SPSS. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.; 2009.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hair JFJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC. Multivariate Data Analysis. 5th ed. Dehli, Chennai: Pearson Education, Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah K. Calabrese
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kristen Underhill
    • 2
    • 3
  • Valerie A. Earnshaw
    • 2
    • 4
  • Nathan B. Hansen
    • 2
    • 5
  • Trace S. Kershaw
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manya Magnus
    • 6
  • Douglas S. Krakower
    • 7
    • 8
  • Kenneth H. Mayer
    • 7
    • 8
  • Joseph R. Betancourt
    • 9
  • John F. Dovidio
    • 2
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Chronic Disease EpidemiologyYale School of Public Health, Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDSYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Yale Law School, Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public HealthUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  6. 6.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMilken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  7. 7.Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  8. 8.The Fenway InstituteFenway HealthBostonUSA
  9. 9.Disparities Solutions CenterMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  10. 10.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations