AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 395–404 | Cite as

High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  • Patrick Nadol
  • Hoang Tran
  • Theodore Hammett
  • Son Phan
  • Duong Nguyen
  • John Kaldor
  • Matthew Law
Original Paper

Abstract

Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19–7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97–5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.

Keywords

Female sex partners Male injection drug users HIV/AIDS Concentrated epidemic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research has been supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the USAID Contract No.: GPO-I-00-05-00026-00, Health Policy Initiative Vietnam awarded to Abt. Associates Inc.

References

  1. 1.
    Vietnam Ministry of Health. Viet Nam HIV/AIDS estimates and projections 2011–2015. Vietnam: Vietnam Ministry of Health; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vietnam Ministry of Health. Integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) in Vietnam-round III 2013. Vietnam: Vietnam Ministry of Health; 2014.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vietnam Ministry of Health. Integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) in Vietnam-round II 2009. Vietnam: Vietnam Ministry of Health; 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Go VF, Quan VM, Voytek C, Celentano D, Van Nam L. Intra-couple communication dynamics of HIV risk behavior among injecting drug users and their sexual partners in Northern Vietnam. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;84(1):69–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kumar MS, Virk HK, Chaudhuri A, Mittal A, Lewis G. A rapid situation and response assessment of the female regular sex partners of male drug users in South Asia: factors associated with condom use during the last sexual intercourse. Int J Drug Policy. 2008;19(2):148–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu H, Grusky O, Li X, Ma E. Drug users: a potentially important bridge population in the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, China. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33(2):111–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mazhnaya A, Andreeva TI, Samuels S, DeHovitz J, Salyuk T, McNutt L-A. The potential for bridging: HIV status awareness and risky sexual behaviour of injection drug users who have non-injecting permanent partners in Ukraine. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18825.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vanichseni S, Des Jarlais DC, Choopanya K, Friedmann P, Wenston J, Sonchai W, et al. Condom use with primary partners among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand and New York City, United States. AIDS. 1993;7(6):887–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Go VF, Frangakis C, Van Nam L, Bergenstrom A, Sripaipan T, Zenilman JM, et al. High HIV sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted disease prevalence among injection drug users in in Northern Vietnam: implications for a generalized HIV epidemic. JAIDS. 2006;42(1):108–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alipour A, Haghdoost AA, Sajadi L, Zolala F. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours among female partners of male injecting drugs users in Iran: results of a bio-behavioural survey, 2010. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(3):41–4.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghimire B, Suguimoto SP, Zamani S, Ono-Kihara M, Kihara M. Vulnerability to HIV infection among female drug users in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1238.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dosekun O, Fox J. An overview of the relative risks of different sexual behaviours on HIV transmission. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5(4):291–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lasry A, Sansom SL, Wolitski RJ, Green TA, Borkowf CB, Patel P, et al. HIV sexual transmission risk among serodiscordant couples: assessing the effects of combining prevention strategies. AIDS. 2014;28:1521–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patel P, Borkowf CB, Brooks JT, Lasry A, Lansky A, Mermin J. Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: a systematic review. AIDS. 2014;28:1509–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Des Jarlais DC, Feelemyer JP, Modi SN, Arasteh K, Hagan H. Are females who inject drugs at higher risk for HIV infection than males who inject drugs: an international systematic review of high seroprevalence areas. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;124(1–2):95–107.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    El-Bassel N, Shaw SA, Dasgupta A, Strathdee SA. People who inject drugs in intimate relationships: it takes two to combat HIV. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2014;11(1):45–51.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jenness SM, Neaigus A, Hagan H, Murrill CS, Wendel T. Heterosexual HIV and sexual partnerships between injection drug users and noninjection drug users. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2010;24:175–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neaigus A, Miller M, Gyarmathy VA, Friedman SR. HIV heterosexual sexual risk from injecting drug users among HIV-seronegative noninjecting heroin users. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46:208–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hammett TM, Kling R, Binh KT, Oanh KTH, Van NTH. Female sex partners of injection drug users in Vietnam: an at-risk population in urgent need of HIV prevention services. AIDS Care. 2010;22:1466–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Toussova O, Shcherbakova I, Volkova G, Niccolai L, Heimer R, Kozlov A. Potential bridges of heterosexual HIV transmission from drug users to the general population in St. Petersburg, Russia: is it easy to be a young female? J Urban Heal Bull N Y Acad Med. 2009;86(1):121–30.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Solomon SS, Srikrishnan AK, Celentano DD, Johnson SC, Vasudevan CK, Murugavel KG, et al. The intersection between sex and drugs: a cross-sectional study among the spouses of injection drug users in Chennai, India. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:39.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hammett TM, Kling R, Van NTH, Son DH, Binh KT, Oanh KTH. HIV prevention interventions for female sexual partners of injection drug users in Hanoi, Vietnam: 24-month evaluation results. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(5):1164–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    UNAIDS UW. Measuring intimate partner transmission of HIV in Viet Nam: a triangulation exercise. Vietnam: UNAIDS UW; 2012.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vietnam Ministry of Health (MOH). Vietnam HIV/AIDS estimates and projections. Vietnam: Vietnam Ministry of Health; 2012.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    CLIAwaived.com. One step drug screen test card: product insert. 2010.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Global Strategic Information. Toolbox for conducting integrated HIV surveillance (IBBS) in key populations. 2014.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shah NS, Shiraishi RW, Subhachaturas W, Anand A, Whitehead SJ, Tanpradech S, Manopaiboon C, Sabin KM, Kimberley KF, Kim AY. Bridging populations—sexual risk behaviors and hiv prevalence in clients and partners of female sex workers, Bangkok, Thailand 2007. J Urban Heal Bull N Y Acad Med. 2011;88(3):533–44.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ameringer S, Serlin RC, Ward S. Simpson’s paradox and experimental research suzanne. Nurs Res. 2009;58(2):123–7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hammett TM, et al. Evaluation of HIV prevention interventions for female sexual partners of IDUs in Hanoi, Dien Bien, and HCMC (Unpublished dataset, cited with permission). 2013.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tran TN, Detels R, Long HT, Lan HP. Drug use among female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam. Addiction. 2005;100(5):619–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Terlikbayeva A, Beyrer C, Wu E, Shaw SA, et al. HIV risks among injecting and non-injecting female partners of men who inject drugs in Almaty, Kazakhstan: implications for HIV prevention, research, and policy. Int J Drug Policy. 2013;25:195–1203.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suohu K, Humtsoe C, Saggurti N, Sabarwal S, Mahapatra B, Kermode M. Understanding the association between injecting and sexual risk behaviors of injecting drug users in Manipur and Nagaland, India. Harm Reduct J. 2012;9:40.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mishra RK, Ganju D, Ramesh S, Lalmuanpuii M, Biangtung L, Humtsoe C, et al. HIV risk behaviors of male injecting drug users and associated non-condom use with regular female sexual partners in north-east India. Harm Reduct J. 2014;11(1):5.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deschamps M-M. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Haiti. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(4):324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hira SK, Feldblum PJ, Kamanga J, Mukelabai G, Weir SS, Thomas JC. Condom and nonoxynol-9 use and the incidence of HIV infection in serodiscordant couples in Zambia. Int J STD AIDS. 1997;8(4):243–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ahmed S, Lutalo T, Wawer M, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK, Nalugoda F, et al. HIV incidence and sexually transmitted disease prevalence associated with condom use: a population study in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS. 2001;15(16):2171–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    El-Bassel N, Terlikbaeva A, Pinkham S. HIV and women who use drugs: double neglect, double risk. Lancet. 2010;376(9738):312–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lazuardi E, Worth H, Saktiawati AMI, Spooner C, Padmawati R, Subronto Y. Boyfriends and injecting: the role of intimate male partners in the life of women who inject drugs in Central Java. Cult Health Sex. 2012;14(5):491–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gallo MF, Steiner MJ, Hobbs MM, Warner L, Jamieson DJ, Macaluso M. Biological markers of sexual activity: tools for improving measurement in HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention research. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40(6):447–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hammett1 TM et al. Female sexual partners of male injection drug users in Vietnam have poor knowledge of their male partners’ HIV status. 2014.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated prevention services for HIV infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis for persons who use drugs illicitly: summary guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2012;61(RR-5):1–40.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    El-Bassel N, Gilbert L, Terlikbayeva A, Beyrer C, Wu E, Chang M, et al. Effects of a couple-based intervention to reduce risks for HIV, HCV, and STIs among drug-involved heterosexual couples in Kazakhstan: a randomized controlled trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;67(2):196–203.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lam NT. Drugs, sex and AIDS: sexual relationships among injecting drug users and their sexual partners in Vietnam. Cult Health Sex. 2008;10:S123–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Go VF, Frangakis C, Le Minh N, Latkin CA, Ha TV, Mo TT, et al. Effects of an HIV peer prevention intervention on sexual and injecting risk behaviors among injecting drug users and their risk partners in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial. Soc Sci Med. 2013;96:154–64.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Nadol
    • 1
  • Hoang Tran
    • 2
  • Theodore Hammett
    • 3
  • Son Phan
    • 3
  • Duong Nguyen
    • 4
  • John Kaldor
    • 1
  • Matthew Law
    • 1
  1. 1.Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in SocietyUNSWSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Partners in Health Research (PHR)HanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Abt Associates Inc.CambridgeUSA
  4. 4.US Agency for International Development (USAID)HanoiVietnam

Personalised recommendations