AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 395–404 | Cite as

High HIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors Among Female Sexual Partners of Male Injection Drug Users (MWID) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  • Patrick Nadol
  • Hoang Tran
  • Theodore Hammett
  • Son Phan
  • Duong Nguyen
  • John Kaldor
  • Matthew Law
Original Paper


Injection drug use is a major factor in acquiring and transmitting HIV in Vietnam. This analysis aims to present estimates of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV infection among female sex partners (FSP) of MWID in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 among males who inject drugs (MWID) who then referred their FSP for a behavioral and biologic survey. In total, 445 MWID and FSPs were enrolled. HIV prevalence among MWID was 50 and 35 % among FSPs. Among FSPs, 60.3 % reported ever using illegal drugs and among those, 72.7 % reported ever injecting illicit drugs. Among FSP, injection drug for >1 year [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR), 95 % CI 2.94, 1.19–7.26), p value = <0.001] and having a male partner infected with HIV [(aOR 3.35: 1.97–5.69), p value = <0.001] were associated with HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among FSP of MWID in HCMC and is highly associated with the injection drug use behavior of the FSP. Harm-reduction intervention programs that focus on the MWID-FSP couple or directly on the FSPs are required.


Female sex partners Male injection drug users HIV/AIDS Concentrated epidemic 



The research has been supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the USAID Contract No.: GPO-I-00-05-00026-00, Health Policy Initiative Vietnam awarded to Abt. Associates Inc.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Nadol
    • 1
  • Hoang Tran
    • 2
  • Theodore Hammett
    • 3
  • Son Phan
    • 3
  • Duong Nguyen
    • 4
  • John Kaldor
    • 1
  • Matthew Law
    • 1
  1. 1.Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in SocietyUNSWSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Partners in Health Research (PHR)HanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Abt Associates Inc.CambridgeUSA
  4. 4.US Agency for International Development (USAID)HanoiVietnam

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