AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 19, Issue 11, pp 2097–2107 | Cite as

Positive Charge: Filling the Gaps in the U.S. HIV Continuum of Care

  • Cathy MaulsbyEmail author
  • The Positive Charge Intervention Team
  • Vignetta Charles
  • Suzanne Kinsky
  • Maura Riordan
  • Kriti Jain
  • David Holtgrave
Original Paper


Adequate engagement in HIV care is necessary for the achievement of optimal health outcomes and for the reduction of HIV transmission. Positive Charge (PC) was a national HIV linkage and re-engagement in care program implemented by AIDS United. This study describes three PC programs, the characteristics of their participants, and the continuum of engagement in care for their participants. Eighty-eight percent of participants were engaged in care post PC enrollment. Sixty-nine percent were retained in care, and 46 % were virally suppressed at follow-up. Older participants were more likely to be engaged, retained, and virally suppressed. Differences by race and gender in HIV care and treatment varied across PC programs, reflecting the diverse target populations, locations, and strategies employed by the PC grantees. There is an urgent need for programs that promote HIV care and treatment among vulnerable populations, including young people living with HIV. There is also an urgent need for additional research to test the effectiveness of promising linkage and retention in care strategies, such as peer navigation.


HIV linkage to care HIV retention in care Program evaluation Continuum of care Spectrum of engagement in care HIV cascade 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to the PC intervention staff for their dedication and for the individuals who participated in the PC intervention. This evaluation Project is supported by a Grant from AIDS United to Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The overall Positive Charge Project was supported by an unrestricted Grant from Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) to AIDS United. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health only had a relationship with AIDS United (not BMS). We would also like to acknowledge those whose who took time to review the manuscript. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of AIDS United, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, or the grantees of the Positive Charge initiative.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy Maulsby
    • 1
    Email author
  • The Positive Charge Intervention Team
  • Vignetta Charles
    • 2
  • Suzanne Kinsky
    • 2
  • Maura Riordan
    • 2
  • Kriti Jain
    • 1
  • David Holtgrave
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health, Behavior and SocietyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.AIDS UnitedWashingtonUSA

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