Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 19, Issue 12, pp 2177–2183 | Cite as

Transactional Sex and the HIV Epidemic Among Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM): Results From a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Catherine E. Oldenburg
  • Amaya G. Perez-Brumer
  • Sari L. Reisner
  • Matthew J. Mimiaga
Brief Report

Abstract

Engagement in transactional sex has been hypothesized to increase risk of HIV among MSM, however conflicting evidence exists. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing HIV prevalence among MSM who engaged in transactional sex to those who did not (33 studies in 17 countries; n = 78,112 MSM). Overall, transactional sex was associated with a significant elevation in HIV prevalence (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.11–1.62). Latin America (OR 2.28, 95 % CI 1.87–2.78) and Sub-Saharan Africa (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.02–2.91) were the only regions where this elevation was noted. Further research is needed to understand factors associated with sex work and subsequent HIV risk in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords

Men who have sex with men HIV Transactional sex Meta-analysis 

Resumen

La participación en el sexo transaccional ha sido un hipótesispor la cual el riesgo de VIH esta aumentado entre los HSH, sin embargo evidencia contradictoria existe. Se realizó una revisión sistemática y meta-análisis para comparar la prevalencia del VIH entre los HSH que reportaron sexo transaccional comparado a los que no lo (33 estudios en 17 países; n = 78,112 HSH). En total, el sexo transaccional fue asociado con un aumento significativo en la prevalencia del VIH (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI = 1.11-1.62). América Latina (OR = 2.28; 95 % CI = 1.87-2.78) y África Subsahariana (OR = 1,72; 95 % CI = 1.02-2.91) fueron las únicas regiones en que se observó esta elevación. Se necesitan más investigaciones para mejor entender los factores asociados con el trabajo sexual y riesgo subsiguiente para el VIH en América Latina y en África subsahariana.

Palabras clave

hombres que tienen sexo con hombres VIH el sexo transaccional meta-análisis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

CEO is supported by a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease T32 NRSA Grant (T32AI007535; PI: Seage) and a National Institute on Drug Abuse T32 NRSA Grant (T32DA013911; PI: Flanigan). APB is supported by a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development T32 NRSA Grant (T32HD049339; PI: Nathanson). Support for this work came from the National Institutes of Health.

Supplementary material

10461_2015_1010_MOESM1_ESM.docx (162 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 161 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Baral S, Sifakis F, Cleghorn F, Beyrer C. Elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries 2000-2006: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e339.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beyrer C, Baral SD, van Griensven F, Goodreau SM, Chariyalertsak S, Wirtz AL, et al. HIV in men who have sex with men 1: global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. Lancet. 2012;380:367–77.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baral S, Logie CH, Grosso A, Wirtz AL, Beyrer C. Modified social ecological model: a tool to guide the assessment of the risks and risk contexts of HIV epidemics. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:482.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baggaley RF, White RG, Boily MC. HIV transmission risk through anal intercourse: systematic review, meta-analysis and implications for HIV prevention. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39:1048–63.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Risher K, Adams D, Sithole B, Ketende S, Kennedy C, Mnisi Z, et al. Sexual stigma and discrimination as barriers to seeking appropriate healthcare among men who have sex with men in Swaziland. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013. doi: 10.7448/IAS.16.3.18715.
  6. 6.
    Semugoma P, Beyrer C, Baral S. Assessing the effects of anti-homosexuality legislation in Uganda on HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. SAHARA J. 2012;9:173–176.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Landers SJ, Closson EF, Oldenburg CE, Holcomb R, Spurlock S, Mimiaga MJ. HIV prevention needs among street-based male sex workers in Providence, Rhode Island. Am J Public Health.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biello KB, Colby D, Closson E, Mimiaga MJ. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. AIDS Behav. 2013. doi: 10.1007/s10461-013-0632-8.
  9. 9.
    Oldenburg C, Biello KB, Colby D, Closson E, Mai T, Nguyen T, et al. Stigma related to sex work among men who engage in transactional sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Int J Public Health. 2014;59(5):833–40.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    King EJ, Maman S, Bowling JM, Moracco KE, Dudina V. The influence of stigma and discrimination on female sex workers’ access to HIV services in St. Petersburg, Russia. AIDS Behav 2013;17:2597–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Logie CH, Newman PA, Chakrapani V, Shunmugam M. Adapting the minority stress model: associations between gender non-conformity stigma, HIV-related stigma and depression among men who have sex with men in South India. Soc Sci Med. 2012;74:1261–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lama JR, Lucchetti A, Suarez L, Laguna-Torres A, Guanira JV, Pun M, et al. Association of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection among men who have sex with men in Peru. JID. 2006;194:1459–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacobson JO, Sánchez-Gómez A, Montoya O, Soria E, Tarupi W, Chiriboga Urquizo M, et al. A continuing HIV epidemic and differential patterns of HIV-STI risk among MSM in Quito, Ecuador: an urgent need to scale up HIV testing and prevention. AIDS Behav. 2013. doi: 10.1007/s10461-013-0478-0.
  14. 14.
    Wade AS, Kane CT, Diallo PAN, Diop AK, Gueye K, Mboup S, et al. HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Senegal. AIDS. 2005;19:2133–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oldenburg CE, Perez-Brumer AG, Reisner SL, Mattie J, Bärnighausen T, Mayer KH, et al. Global burden of HIV among men who engage in transactional sex: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9:e103549.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials*. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7:177–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chan PA, Khan OA. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM) in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:153.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Montano SM, Sanchez JL, Laguna-Torres A, Cuchi P, Avila MM, Weissenbacher M, et al. Prevalences, genotypes, and risk factors for HIV transmission in South America. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40(1):57–64.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nguyen TA, Nguyen HT, Le GT, Detels R. Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV infection among men having sex with men in Ho Chi Minh City. AIDS Behav. 2007;12:476–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gupta A, Mehta S, Godbole SV, Sahay S, Walshe L, Reynolds SJ, et al. Same-sex behavior and high rates of HIV among men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India (1993–2002). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43:483–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Feng L, Ding X, Lu R, Liu J, Sy A, Ouyang L, et al. High HIV prevalence detected in 2006 and 2007 among men who have sex with men in China’s largest municipality: an alarming epidemic in Chongqing. China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:79–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Segura M, Estani SS, Marone R, Bautista CT, Pando MA, Eyzaguirre L, et al. Buenos Aires cohort of men who have sex with men: prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and molecular genotyping of HIV type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:1322–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xiao Y, Sun J, Li C, Lu F, Allen KL, Vermund SH, et al. Prevalence and correlates of HIV and syphilis infections among men who have sex with men in seven provinces in China with historically low HIV prevalence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53:S66–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu Z, Xu J, Liu E, Mao Y, Xiao Y, Sun X, et al. HIV and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional survey of 61 cities in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:298–309.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baral S, Burrell E, Scheibe A, Brown B, Beyrer C, Bekker L-G. HIV risk and associations of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Peri-Urban CapeTown, South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:766.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mor Z. Knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and STI/HIV prevalence in male sex workers and other men who have sex in Tel Aviv, Israel: a cross-sectional study. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:574–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    van Griensven F, Thienkrua W, McNicholl J, Wimonsate W, Chaikummao S, Chonwattana W, et al. Evidence of an explosive epidemic of HIV infection in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Thailand. AIDS. 2013;27:825–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sheridan S, Phimphachanh C, Chanlivong N, Manivong S, Khamsyvolsvong S, Lattanavong P, et al. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Vientiane Capital, Lao Peopleʼs Democratic Republic, 2007. AIDS. 2009;23:409–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Integrated Bio-behavioral Survey (IBBS) among MSM Population in Kathmandu Valley. Center for Research on Environment Health and Population Activities 2005: 1–97.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Creswell J, Guardado ME, Lee J, Nieto AI, Kim AA, Monterroso E, et al. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88:633–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Konda KA, Clark JL, Segura E, Salvatierra J, Galea J, Leon SR, et al. Male sex workers among men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. 2008.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Colby D, Minh TT, Toan TT. Down on the farm: homosexual behaviour, HIV risk and HIV prevalence in rural communities in Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:439–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ruan S, Yang H, Zhu Y, Ma Y, Li J, Zhao J, et al. HIV prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men, Jinan. China. AIDS Behav. 2008;12:469–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang L, Zhang D, Yu B, Wang S, Liu Y, Wang J, et al. Prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Harbin,. P. R. China. PLoS One. 2013;8:e58440.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hernandez AL, Lindan CP, Mathur M, Ekstrand M, Madhivanan P, Stein ES, et al. Sexual behavior among men who have sex with women, men, and Hijras in Mumbai, India—multiple sexual risks. AIDS Behav. 2006;10:5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hoang TV, Tuan NA, Vi LNL, Mills SJ, Ha TTT, Thuy LC, et al. Results from the HIV/STI integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) in Vietnam—Round II 2009. 2009.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Integrated Bio-behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Men who have Sex with Menin the Kathmandu Valley—2007. 2008; :1–101.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kladsawad K. Results of the 3rd round of surveillance of HIV infection and risk behavior in populations of men who have sex with men in Thailand. 2008.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pisani E. HIV, syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:536–40.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Muraguri N, Tun W, Okal J, Broz D, Raymond HF, Kellogg T, et al. Burden of HIV and sexual behavior among men who have sex with men and male sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. 2012.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hladik W, Barker J, Ssenkusu JM, Opio A, Tappero JW, Hakim A, et al. HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Kampala, Uganda—a respondent driven sampling survey. PLoS One. 2012;7:e38143.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brahmam GN, Kodavalla V, Rajkumar H, Rachakulla HK, Kalllam S, Myakala SP, et al. Sexual practices, HIV and sexually transmitted infections among self-identified men who have sex with men in four high HIV prevalence states of India. AIDS. 2008;22:S45–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhao J, Cai W-D, Gan Y-X, Zhang Y, Yang Z-R, Cheng J-Q, et al. A comparison of HIV infection and related risk factors between money boys and noncommercial men who have sex with men in Shenzhen. China. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2012;39:942–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chemnasiri T, Netwong T, Visarutratana S, Varangrat A, Li A, Phanuphak P, et al. Inconsistent condom use among young men who have sex with men, male sex workers, and transgenders in Thailand. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010;22:100–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kral AH. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among men who have sex with men and inject drugs in San Francisco. J Urban Health. 2005;82:i43–50.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Prevalence among populations HIV of men who have sex with men—Thailand and 2005. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;2005(55):844–8.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bacon O, Lum P, Hahn J, Evans J, Davidson P, Moss A, et al. Commercial sex work and risk of HIV infection among young drug-injecting men who have sex with men in San Francisco. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:228–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Price MA, Rida W, Mwangome M, Mutua G, Middelkoop K, Roux S, et al. Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59:185–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Li A, Varangrat A, Wimonsate W, Chemnasiri T, Sinthuwattanawibool C, Phanuphak P, et al. Sexual behavior and risk factors for HIV infection among homosexual and bisexual men in Thailand. AIDS Behav. 2008;13:318–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tanser F, de Oliveira T, Maheu-Giroux M, Bärnighausen T. Concentrated HIV subepidemics in generalized epidemic settings. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2013;9:115–125.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chow EPF, Iu KI, Fu X, Wilson DP, Zhang L. HIV and sexually transmissible infections among money boys in China: a data synthesis and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7:e48025.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mimiaga MJ, Reisner SL, Tinsley JP, Mayer KH, Safren SA. Street workers and internet escorts: contextual and psychosocial factors surrounding HIV risk behavior among men who engage in sex work with other men. J Urban Health. 2008;86:54–66.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine E. Oldenburg
    • 1
  • Amaya G. Perez-Brumer
    • 2
  • Sari L. Reisner
    • 1
    • 3
  • Matthew J. Mimiaga
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.The Fenway InstituteFenway Community HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations