AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 19, Supplement 1, pp 16–23 | Cite as

Critique and Lessons Learned from using Multiple Methods to Estimate Population Size of Men who have Sex with Men in Ghana

  • Silas Quaye
  • H. Fisher Raymond
  • Kyeremeh Atuahene
  • Richard Amenyah
  • John Aberle-Grasse
  • Willi McFarland
  • Angela El-Adas
  • Ghana Men Study Group
Original Paper


Population size estimation of key populations at risk of HIV is essential to every national response. We implemented population size estimation of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ghana using a three-stage approach within the 2011 Ghana Men’s Study: during the study’s formative assessment, the larger integrated bio-behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey; and during the stakeholder meeting. We used six methods in combination within the three-stage approach (literature review, mapping with census, unique object multiplier, service multiplier, wisdom of the crowd, and modified Delphi) to generate size estimates from 16 locations (4 IBBS survey sites and 12 other locations) and used the estimates from the 16 sites to extrapolate the total MSM population size of Ghana. We estimated the number of MSM in Ghana to be 30,579 with a plausible range of 21,645–34,470. The overall estimate suggests that the prevalence of MSM in Ghana is 0.48 % of the adult male population. Lessons learned are shared to inform and improve applications of the methods in future studies.


Men who have sex with men Africa Population size estimates 



This research has been supported by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Ghana Country Office under the terms of Cooperative Agreement Number 5U2GPS001469-03. The authors would like to thank Dr. Fazle Khan, Dr. Celia Woodfill and all reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript. The views expressed in this manuscript do not necessarily reflect the official views of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silas Quaye
    • 1
  • H. Fisher Raymond
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kyeremeh Atuahene
    • 4
  • Richard Amenyah
    • 5
  • John Aberle-Grasse
    • 6
  • Willi McFarland
    • 2
    • 3
  • Angela El-Adas
    • 4
  • Ghana Men Study Group
  1. 1.Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global HealthCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAccraGhana
  2. 2.Global Health Sciences, Prevention and Public Health GroupUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscosUSA
  3. 3.San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Ghana AIDS CommissionAccraGhana
  5. 5.UNAIDS-Technical Support FacilityWest and Central AfricaWest Africa
  6. 6.Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global HealthCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaGeorgia

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