AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 9, pp 1808–1819 | Cite as

Positive Choices: Outcomes of a Brief Risk Reduction Intervention for Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men

  • Kathleen J. SikkemaEmail author
  • Laurie Abler
  • Nathan B. Hansen
  • Patrick A. Wilson
  • Anya S. Drabkin
  • Arlene Kochman
  • Jessica C. MacFarlane
  • Allyson DeLorenzo
  • Gal Mayer
  • Melissa H. Watt
  • William Nazareth
Original Paper


Positive choices (PC), a brief sexual risk reduction intervention conducted with newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM), was evaluated for preliminary efficacy. Participants were enrolled if they reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the three months prior to HIV diagnosis (n = 102). Three months after diagnosis, participants completed baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to receive the 3-session PC intervention or the comprehensive standard of care (C-SoC) at a community health center. Participants completed assessments at 3- (post intervention), 6-, and 9- months after baseline. Compared to C-SoC participants, PC participants significantly reduced the frequency of UAI with HIV serodiscordant (HIV negative or status unknown) partners over the 9-month follow-up period. No differences by condition were found in the frequency of UAI with all partners. The findings from this trial suggest that brief risk reduction approaches for newly-diagnosed MSM integrated into HIV care can benefit secondary HIV prevention efforts.


HIV positive MSM Intervention HIV prevention New HIV diagnosis RCT 


Decisiones positivas (DP), una intervención breve de la reducción del riesgo sexual realizado con hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres (HSH) y están recién diagnosticados con el VIH, fue evaluada para determinar su eficacia preliminar. Participantes fueron enrollados si reportaron sexo anal sin protección (SASP) en los tres meses antes del diagnóstico del VIH (n = 102). Tres meses después de su diagnóstico con el VIH, participantes completaron una evaluación basal y fueron asignados al azar para recibir la intervención DP de 3 sesiones o el estándar de atención integral (EdAT) en un centro de salud de la comunidad. Los participantes completaron las evaluaciones post-intervención a las 3-, 6- y 9- meses después del basal. En comparación con los participantes del EdAT, los participantes de DP redujeron significativamente la frecuencia del SASP con las parejas VIH sero-discordantes (negativos o que desconocen su estado del VIH) durante los 9 meses siguientes. No se encontraron diferencias por condición en la frecuencia del SASP con todas las parejas. Los hallazgos de este ensayo sugeren que los métodos breves para la reducción de los riesgos de los HSH recién diagnosticados con el VIH que son integrados en el tratamiento del VIH pueden beneficiar a los esfuerzos secundarios de la prevención del VIH.



This research was funded by the NIH grant R01-MH078731. We are grateful for our longstanding collaboration with Callen-Lorde Community Health Center and the individuals who offered their participation in the study. In addition, we acknowledge the Duke Center for AIDS Research (NIAID P30-AI064518) for the support in the conduct of this study and preparation of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen J. Sikkema
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Laurie Abler
    • 2
  • Nathan B. Hansen
    • 3
  • Patrick A. Wilson
    • 4
  • Anya S. Drabkin
    • 1
  • Arlene Kochman
    • 2
  • Jessica C. MacFarlane
    • 2
  • Allyson DeLorenzo
    • 2
  • Gal Mayer
    • 5
  • Melissa H. Watt
    • 2
  • William Nazareth
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Duke Global Health InstituteDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health Promotion and BehaviorUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  4. 4.Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.Callen-Lorde Community Health CenterNew YorkUSA

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