AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 1368–1377 | Cite as

Current Cigarette Smoking Among HIV-Positive Current and Former Drug Users: Associations with Individual and Social Characteristics

  • Lauren R. Pacek
  • Carl Latkin
  • Rosa M. Crum
  • Elizabeth A. Stuart
  • Amy R. Knowlton
Original Paper


Cigarette smoking is endemic among HIV-positive populations and is related to substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has largely focused on individual-level characteristics associated with smoking, with less attention to social factors. We aimed to explore individual- and social-level characteristics associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV. Data came from 358 individuals on antiretroviral therapy interviewed in a study on informal HIV caregiving, conducted in Baltimore, MD, USA. Most participants (75 %) were current smokers and 45 % reported current illegal drug use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, current drug use (aOR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.58–5.30), 12-step program participation (aOR 1.74, 95 % CI 1.02–2.97), and having a main Supporter who is a current smoker (aOR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.12–3.33) were associated with current smoking. Findings suggest the importance of social-level factors in cigarette smoking among HIV seropositive drug users and have implications for developing targeted smoking cessation interventions for smokers living with HIV.


Cigarette smoking HIV/AIDS Social environment Social support Informal caregiving 


El consumo de cigarrillos es endémico en las poblaciones con VIH y se relaciona con la morbosidad y la mortalidad. Investigaciónes se ha centrado, en gran medida, enlas características individuales asociadas con el consumo de cigarillos, con menos atención a los factores sociales. El objetivo fue explorar las características al nivel individual y social asociadas con el consumo actual de cigarrillos entre las personas que viven con VIH. Los datos provinieron de 358 personas recibiendo tratamiento antirretroviral entrevistados en un estudio sobre el cuidado informal de VIH, realizado en Baltimore, Maryland. La mayoría de los participantes (75 %) eran fumadores y el 45 % informó el uso actual de drogas ilegales. En los análisis de regresión logística ajustados, consumo actual de drogas (ORa 2.90, IC 95 % 1.58–5.30 95 %), participación en el programa de 12 pasos (ORa 1.74, IC 95 % 1.02–2.97 95 %), y tener un partidario principal que es un fumador actual (ORa 1.93, IC 95 % 1.12–3.33) se asociaron con el consumo actual de cigarillos. Los resultados sugieren la importancia de los factores al nivel social, en el consumo de cigarrillos entre los usuarios de drogas seropositivos al VIH y tienen implicaciones para el desarrollo de intervenciones para dejar de fumar, dirigidos a los fumadores que viven con el VIH.



This work was funded by the following National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Grants: F31 DA033873 (Pacek), R01 DA032217-02S1 (Latkin), and R01 DA019413 (Knowlton). The authors would also like to acknowledge and thank Ms. Cirielle Colino for her help with English–Spanish translation of the abstract.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren R. Pacek
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  • Carl Latkin
    • 3
  • Rosa M. Crum
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Elizabeth A. Stuart
    • 2
    • 5
  • Amy R. Knowlton
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mental HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health, Behavior & SocietyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiostatisticsJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.BaltimoreUSA

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