AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 1368–1377 | Cite as

Current Cigarette Smoking Among HIV-Positive Current and Former Drug Users: Associations with Individual and Social Characteristics

  • Lauren R. Pacek
  • Carl Latkin
  • Rosa M. Crum
  • Elizabeth A. Stuart
  • Amy R. Knowlton
Original Paper

Abstract

Cigarette smoking is endemic among HIV-positive populations and is related to substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has largely focused on individual-level characteristics associated with smoking, with less attention to social factors. We aimed to explore individual- and social-level characteristics associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV. Data came from 358 individuals on antiretroviral therapy interviewed in a study on informal HIV caregiving, conducted in Baltimore, MD, USA. Most participants (75 %) were current smokers and 45 % reported current illegal drug use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, current drug use (aOR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.58–5.30), 12-step program participation (aOR 1.74, 95 % CI 1.02–2.97), and having a main Supporter who is a current smoker (aOR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.12–3.33) were associated with current smoking. Findings suggest the importance of social-level factors in cigarette smoking among HIV seropositive drug users and have implications for developing targeted smoking cessation interventions for smokers living with HIV.

Keywords

Cigarette smoking HIV/AIDS Social environment Social support Informal caregiving 

Resumen

El consumo de cigarrillos es endémico en las poblaciones con VIH y se relaciona con la morbosidad y la mortalidad. Investigaciónes se ha centrado, en gran medida, enlas características individuales asociadas con el consumo de cigarillos, con menos atención a los factores sociales. El objetivo fue explorar las características al nivel individual y social asociadas con el consumo actual de cigarrillos entre las personas que viven con VIH. Los datos provinieron de 358 personas recibiendo tratamiento antirretroviral entrevistados en un estudio sobre el cuidado informal de VIH, realizado en Baltimore, Maryland. La mayoría de los participantes (75 %) eran fumadores y el 45 % informó el uso actual de drogas ilegales. En los análisis de regresión logística ajustados, consumo actual de drogas (ORa 2.90, IC 95 % 1.58–5.30 95 %), participación en el programa de 12 pasos (ORa 1.74, IC 95 % 1.02–2.97 95 %), y tener un partidario principal que es un fumador actual (ORa 1.93, IC 95 % 1.12–3.33) se asociaron con el consumo actual de cigarillos. Los resultados sugieren la importancia de los factores al nivel social, en el consumo de cigarrillos entre los usuarios de drogas seropositivos al VIH y tienen implicaciones para el desarrollo de intervenciones para dejar de fumar, dirigidos a los fumadores que viven con el VIH.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the following National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Grants: F31 DA033873 (Pacek), R01 DA032217-02S1 (Latkin), and R01 DA019413 (Knowlton). The authors would also like to acknowledge and thank Ms. Cirielle Colino for her help with English–Spanish translation of the abstract.

References

  1. 1.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco use: targeting the Nation’s leading killer at a glance 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/osh.htm (2011). Accessed 9 Dec 2012.
  2. 2.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults—United States, 2004–2010. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6038a2.htm (2011). Accessed 8 Dec 2012.
  3. 3.
    Collins RL, Kanouse DE, Gifford AL, Senterfitt JW, Schuster MA, McCaffrey DF, Shapiro MF, Wenger NS. Changes in health-promoting behavior following diagnosis with HIV: prevalence and correlates in a national probability sample. Health Psychol. 2001;20(5):351–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gritz ER, Vidrine DJ, Lazev AB, Amick BC III, Arduino RC. Smoking behavior in a low- income multiethnic HIV/AIDS population. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6(1):71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mamary EM, Bahrs D, Martinez S. Cigarette smoking and desire to quit among individuals living with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2002;16(1):39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burkhalter JE, Springer CM, Chhabra R, Ostroff JS, Rapkin BD. Tobacco use and readiness to quit smoking in low-income HIV-infected persons. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(4):511–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crothers K, Griffith TA, McGinnis KA, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Leaf DA, Weissman S, Gilbert CL, Butt AA, Justice AC. The impact of cigarette smoking on mortality, quality of life, and comorbid illness among HIV-positive veterans. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:1142–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lifson AR, Neuhaus J, Arribas JR, van den Berg-Wolf M, Labriola AM, Read TRH. Smoking-related health risks among persons with HIV in the strategies for management of antiretroviral therapy clinical trial. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(10):1896–903.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lewden C, Salmon D, Morlat P, Bévilacqua S, Jougla E, Bonnet F, Héripret L, Costagliola D, May T, Chêne G. Mortality 2000 study group. Causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: emerging role of hepatitis and cancers, persistent role of AIDS. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:121–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diaz PT, King MA, Pacht ER, Wewers MD, Gadek JE, Nagaraja HN, Drake J, Clanton TL. Increased susceptibility to pulmonary emphysema among HIV-seropositive smokers. Ann Intern Med. 2002;132(5):369–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Crothers K, Butt AA, Gibert CL, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Crystal S, Justice AC. Veterans Aging Cohort 5 Project Team. Increased COPD among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative veterans. Chest. 2006;130:1326–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miguez-Burbano MJ, Ashkin D, Rodriguez A, Duncan R, Pitchenik A, Quintero N, Flores M, Shor-Posner G. Increased risk of Pneumocystis carinii and community-acquired pneumonia with tobacco use in HIV disease. Int J Infect Dis. 2005;9:208–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirk GD, Merlo C, O’Driscoll P, Mehta SH, Vlahov D, Samet J, Engels EA. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chaturvedi AK, Pfeiffer RM, Chang L, Goedert JJ, Biggar RJ, Engels EA. Elevated risk of lung cancer among people with AIDS. AIDS. 2007;21:207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Engels EA, Brock MV, Chen J, Hooker CM, Gillison M, Moore RD. Elevated incidence of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(9):1383–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Petoumenos K, Worm S, Reiss P, de Wit S, d’Arminio MA, Sabin C, Friis-Møller N, Weber R, Mercie P, Pradier C, El-Sadr W, Kirk O, Lundgren J, Law M, D:A:D Study Group. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection: results from the D:A:D study. HIV Med. 2011;12:412–21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barbaro G, Di Lorenzo G, Cirelli A, Grisorio B, Lucchini A, Hazra C, Barbarini G. An open-label, prospective, observational study of the incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Ther. 2003;25:2405–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Friis-Møller N, Sabin CA, Weber R, d’Arminio MA, El-Sadr WM, Reiss P, Thiébaut R, Morfeldt L, De Wit S, Pradier C, Calvo G, Law MG, Kirk O, Phillips AN, Lundgren JD, Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1993–2003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savès M, Chêne G, Ducimetière P, Leport C, Le Moal G, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, Ruidavets J, Reynes J, Bingham A, Raffi F, French WHO MONICA Project and the APROCO Study Group. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients treated for human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:292–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Helleberg M, Afzal S, Kronborg G, Larsen CS, Pedersen G, Pedersen C, Gerstoft J, Nordestgaard BD, Obel N. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals: a nationwide, population-based cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(5):727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sopori M. Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system. Nature. 2002;2:372–7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Furber AS, Maheswaran R, Newell JN, Carroll C. Is smoking tobacco an independent risk factor for HIV infection and progression to AIDS? A systematic review. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:41–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feldman JG, Minkoff H, Schneider MF, Gange SJ, Cohen M, Watts H, Gandhi M, Mocharnuk RS, Anastos K. Association of cigarette smoking with HIV prognosis among women in the HAART era: a report from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(6):1060–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stewart DW, Jones GN, Minor KS. Smoking, depression, and gender in low-income African Americans with HIV/AIDS. Behav Med. 2012;37:77–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tesoriero JM, Gieryic SM, Carrascal A, Lavigne HE. Smoking among HIV positive New Yorkers: prevalence, frequency, and opportunities for cessation. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(4):824–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chander G, Stanton C, Hutton HE, Abrams DB, Pearson J, Knowlton A, Latkin C, Holtgrave D, Moore RD, Niaura R. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(2):383–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The collective dynamics of smoking in a large social network. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2249–58.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alexander C, Piazza M, Mekos D, Valente T. Peers, school, and adolescent cigarette smoking. J Adolesc Health. 2001;29(1):22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Unger JB, Chen X. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazard model of risk and protective factors. Addict Behav. 1999;24(3):371–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brook JS, Saar NS, Zhang C, Brook DW. Familial and non-familial smoking: effects on smoking and nicotine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;101:62–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Monden CWS, de Graaf ND, Kraaykamp G. How important are parents and partners for smoking cessation in adulthood? A recent history analysis. Prev Med. 2003;36:197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mermelstein R, Cohen S, Lichtenstein E, Baer JS, Kamarck T. Social support and smoking cessation and maintenance. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1986;54(4):447–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Rickert W, Robinson J. Measuring the heaviness of smoking: using self-reported time to first cigarette of the day and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Br J Addict. 1989;84:791–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1(3):385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 12. 2011; College Station: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Richter KP, Ahluwalia HK, Mosier MC, Nazir N, Ahluwalia JS. A population-based study of cigarette smoking among illicit drug users in the United States. Addiction. 2002;97(7):861–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sussman S. Smoking cessation among persons in recovery. Subst Use Misuse. 2002;37:1275–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Joseph AM, Willenberg ML, Nelson D, Nugent SM. Timing of alcohol and smoking cessation study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26:1945–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ziedonis DM, Guydish J, Williams J, Steinberg M, Foulds J. Barriers and solutions to addressing tobacco dependence in addiction treatment programs. Alcohol Res Health. 2006;29:228–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Macalino GE, Celentano DD, Latkin C, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. Risk behaviors by audio computer-assisted self-interviews among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative injection drug users. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14:367–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wasserman S, Faust K. Social networks analysis: methods and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren R. Pacek
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  • Carl Latkin
    • 3
  • Rosa M. Crum
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Elizabeth A. Stuart
    • 2
    • 5
  • Amy R. Knowlton
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mental HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health, Behavior & SocietyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiostatisticsJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  6. 6.BaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations