AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1068–1074 | Cite as

Measures of Condom and Safer Sex Social Norms and Stigma Towards HIV/AIDS Among Beijing MSM

  • Yifei Hu
  • Hongyan Lu
  • H. Fisher RaymondEmail author
  • Yanming Sun
  • Jiangping Sun
  • Yujiang Jia
  • Xiong He
  • Song Fan
  • Yan Xiao
  • Willi McFarland
  • Yuhua Ruan
Original Paper


Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior.


Men who have sex with men Condom social norms Safer sex HIV/AIDS stigma China 



This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81273188), the National Institutes of Health (#R01 AI078933), the Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars-Fellows Support Center at Vanderbilt (Grant #R24TW007988), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2012ZX10004-904, 2012ZX10001-002) and Chinese State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Development Grant (2012SKLID103).

Conflict of interest

None declared.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yifei Hu
    • 1
  • Hongyan Lu
    • 2
  • H. Fisher Raymond
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yanming Sun
    • 2
  • Jiangping Sun
    • 1
  • Yujiang Jia
    • 5
  • Xiong He
    • 2
  • Song Fan
    • 6
  • Yan Xiao
    • 1
  • Willi McFarland
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yuhua Ruan
    • 6
  1. 1.National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Preventive MedicineVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and ControlNational Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious DiseasesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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