Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 1068–1074 | Cite as

Measures of Condom and Safer Sex Social Norms and Stigma Towards HIV/AIDS Among Beijing MSM

  • Yifei Hu
  • Hongyan Lu
  • H. Fisher RaymondEmail author
  • Yanming Sun
  • Jiangping Sun
  • Yujiang Jia
  • Xiong He
  • Song Fan
  • Yan Xiao
  • Willi McFarland
  • Yuhua Ruan
Original Paper

Abstract

Social norms around condom use and safe sex as well as HIV/AIDS stigma are used to identify persons at higher risk for HIV. These measures have been developed and tested in a variety of settings and populations. While efforts have been undertaken to develop context specific measures of these domains among Chinese MSM, the feasibility of using existing measures is unknown. A survey of MSM, based on respondent-driven sampling, was conducted in Beijing. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma were piloted. Internal consistency of all measures was high. As expected higher levels of condom social norms and positive attitudes towards safer sex were associated with condom use. HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination had a significant relationship with never having an HIV test and lack of discussion of HIV/AIDS with male partners. Correlates of low condom social norms were age, education, employment and resident status. Existing measures of condom social norms, attitudes towards safer sex and HIV/AIDS stigma appear to be appropriate for use among Chinese MSM. Using existing measures as opposed to developing new measures has the potential to expedite investigations into psychosocial correlates of HIV risk behavior.

Keywords

Men who have sex with men Condom social norms Safer sex HIV/AIDS stigma China 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81273188), the National Institutes of Health (#R01 AI078933), the Fogarty International Clinical Research Scholars-Fellows Support Center at Vanderbilt (Grant #R24TW007988), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2012ZX10004-904, 2012ZX10001-002) and Chinese State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Development Grant (2012SKLID103).

Conflict of interest

None declared.

References

  1. 1.
    Ministry of Health, World Health Organization, HIV/AIDS tJUNPo. Annual report on HIV/AIDS/STD epidemiology. Prevention and treatment in China in 2009; 31 May 2010.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang N, Wang L, Wu Z, Guo W, Sun X, Poundstone K, et al. Estimating the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in China: 2003–09. Int J Epidemiol. 2010;39(Suppl 2):ii21–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu Z, Sullivan S, Rotheram-Borus M, et al. Public health aspects of HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries: epidemiology, prevention and care. New York: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ministry of Health, World Health Organization, HIV/AIDS tJUNPo. 2011 estimates for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Beijing, China; 2012.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goodreau SM, Carnegie NB, Vittinghoff E, Lama JR, Sanchez J, Grinsztejn B, et al. What drives the US and Peruvian HIV epidemics in men who have sex with men (MSM)? PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e50522.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu J, Qu B, Ezeakile MC, Zhang Y. Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men in Liaoning Province, China. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e50493.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    James S, Reddy SP, Taylor M, Jinabhai CC. Young people, HIV/AIDS/STIs and sexuality in South Africa: the gap between awareness and behaviour. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(2):264–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lau JT, Lin C, Hao C, Wu X, Gu J. Public health challenges of the emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in China. Public Health. 2011;125(5):260–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sullivan PS, Carballo-Dieguez A, Coates T, Goodreau SM, McGowan I, Sanders EJ, et al. Successes and challenges of HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. Lancet. 2012;380(9839):388–99.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deng Y, Wang M, Dong H, et al. Investigation on STD/AIDS sexual behavior among MSMs in Kunming. Chin J Public Health. 2007;23(10):1237–39. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tan JG, Cheng JQ, Lu ZX. Evaluation of effects of combination intervention model to men who have sex with men. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;46(8):732–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Genberg BL, Hlavka Z, Konda KA, Maman S, Chariyalertsak S, Chingono A, et al. A comparison of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(12):2279–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lau JT, Cai W, Tsui HY, Chen L, Cheng J, Lin C, et al. Unprotected anal intercourse behavior and intention among male sex workers in Shenzhen serving cross-boundary male clients coming from Hong Kong, China—prevalence and associated factors. AIDS Care. 2012;24(1):59–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fan S, Lu H, Ma X, Sun Y, He X, Li C, et al. Behavioral and serologic survey of men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: implication for HIV intervention. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(3):148–55.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gu J, Lau JT, Chen X, Liu C, Liu J, Chen H, et al. Using the theory of planned behavior to investigate condom use behaviors among female injecting drug users who are also sex workers in China. AIDS Care. 2009;21(8):967–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kegeles SM, Hays RB, Coates TJ. The Mpowerment project: a community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(8):1129–36.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dowshen N, Binns HJ, Garofalo R. Experiences of HIV-related stigma among young men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(5):371–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nemeroff CJ, Hoyt MA, Huebner DM, Proescholdbell RJ. The cognitive escape scale: measuring HIV-related thought avoidance. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(2):305–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ross MW, Rosser BR, Stanton J. Beliefs about cybersex and Internet-mediated sex of Latino men who have internet sex with men: relationships with sexual practices in cybersex and in real life. AIDS Care. 2004;16(8):1002–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang B, Li X, Stanton B, Liu Y, Jiang S. Socio-demographic and behavioral correlates for HIV and syphilis infections among migrant men who have sex with men in Beijing, China. AIDS Care. 2013;25(2):249–57.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu Y, Li X, Zhang L, Li S, Jiang S, Stanton B. Correlates of consistent condom use among young migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2012;17(3):219–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Johnston LG, Trummal A, Lohmus L, Ravalepik A. Efficacy of convenience sampling through the internet versus respondent driven sampling among males who have sex with males in Tallinn and Harju County, Estonia: challenges reaching a hidden population. AIDS Care. 2009;21(9):1195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bengtsson L, Lu X, Nguyen QC, Camitz M, Hoang NL, Nguyen TA, et al. Implementation of web-based respondent-driven sampling among men who have sex with men in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(11):e49417.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Windsor LC, Benoit E, Ream GL, Forenza B. The provider perception inventory: psychometrics of a scale designed to measure provider stigma about HIV, substance abuse, and MSM behavior. AIDS Care. 2012;25(5):586–91.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thomas B, Mimiaga MJ, Mayer KH, Perry NS, Swaminathan S, Safren SA. The influence of stigma on HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Chennai, India. AIDS Care. 2012;24(11):1401–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yifei Hu
    • 1
  • Hongyan Lu
    • 2
  • H. Fisher Raymond
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yanming Sun
    • 2
  • Jiangping Sun
    • 1
  • Yujiang Jia
    • 5
  • Xiong He
    • 2
  • Song Fan
    • 6
  • Yan Xiao
    • 1
  • Willi McFarland
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yuhua Ruan
    • 6
  1. 1.National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Preventive MedicineVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and ControlNational Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious DiseasesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations