AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 519–524 | Cite as

Associations Between Alcohol Use, Other Psychosocial Factors, Structural Factors and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Adherence Among South African ART Recipients

  • Neo K. Morojele
  • Connie T. Kekwaletswe
  • Sebenzile Nkosi
Brief Report


We examined whether alcohol use is associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence independently of structural and psychosocial factors among 304 male and female ART recipients in ART sites in Tshwane, South Africa. ART adherence was assessed by the CASE Adherence Index. Independent variables were demographic, structural, psycho-social, and alcohol use (AUDIT score) factors. In hierarchical multiple regression, demographic variables (Step 1) explained 4 % of variance in ART adherence (p ≤ 0.01). Variance explained increased to 16 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering structural variables (Step 2); 19 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering psychosocial variables (Step 3); and 24 % (p ≤ 0.001) after entering AUDIT score (Step 4). Alcohol use is independently associated with ART adherence.


Antiretroviral therapy adherence Alcohol Structural factors Psychosocial factors South Africa 



This article was supported by Cooperative Agreement Number U2G/PS001137-02 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the CDC. The authors would like to thank Ms. Mantoa Nzeku for managing the study and Ms. Naledi Kitleli and Mr. Kgalabi Ngako for supervising the field staff. We are indebted to the clinic sites’ managers and health care providers as well as the patients for consenting to participate in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neo K. Morojele
    • 1
    • 2
  • Connie T. Kekwaletswe
    • 1
  • Sebenzile Nkosi
    • 1
  1. 1.Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research UnitMedical Research CouncilPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.School of Public HealthUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

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