AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 555–561 | Cite as

Associations of Sex Trafficking History with Recent Sexual Risk among HIV-Infected FSWs in India

  • Jay G. Silverman
  • Niranjan Saggurti
  • Debbie M. Cheng
  • Michele R. Decker
  • Sharon M. Coleman
  • Carly Bridden
  • Manoj Pardeshi
  • Anindita Dasgupta
  • Jeffrey H. Samet
  • Anita Raj
Original Paper


History of forced or coerced sex work entry and/or sex work entry prior to age 18 (i.e., sex trafficking) relate to early HIV risk; whether such risk persists is unclear. The current study assessed associations of reported sex trafficking histories and recent sexual risk among adult HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs; n = 211) in Mumbai, India. Approximately one-half reported entering sex work prior to age 18 (50.2 %) or being forced or coerced into sex work (41.7 %). Past 90-day unprotected transactional sex was more prevalent among FSWs entering as minors than those entering as adults (AOR 2.06); in contrast, being forced or coerced into sex work related to reduction in such risk for HIV transmission (AOR 0.45). Histories of each form of sex trafficking may relate differently to later HIV risk. Intervention with HIV-infected FSWs entering sex work as minors should be prioritized based on potential elevated risk of HIV transmission.


Female sex workers HIV-infected Trafficking India 



This study was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R01AA016059-S1 and K24AA015674) and the Indian Council of Medical Research. We thank Ms. Shabana Patel from the NMP+ for her oversight of study implementation in terms of helping ensure safe, confidential, and respectful treatment of our HIV-infected participants. Finally, we are immensely grateful to the participants of this study who gave their time and shared their personal information and experience.

Conflict of interest

The authors for this manuscript do not have a commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest (e.g., pharmaceutical stock ownership, consultancy, advisory board membership, relevant patents, or research funding).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay G. Silverman
    • 1
  • Niranjan Saggurti
    • 2
  • Debbie M. Cheng
    • 3
  • Michele R. Decker
    • 4
  • Sharon M. Coleman
    • 3
  • Carly Bridden
    • 5
  • Manoj Pardeshi
    • 6
  • Anindita Dasgupta
    • 1
  • Jeffrey H. Samet
    • 5
  • Anita Raj
    • 1
  1. 1.Center on Gender Equity and Health, Division of Global Public HealthUniversity of California, San Diego School of MedicineLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Population Council, HIV/AIDS ProgramNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Population, Family & Reproductive HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  6. 6.Network of Maharashtra by People Living with HIV & AIDS (NMP+)PuneIndia

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