Moderate Levels of Depression Predict Sexual Transmission Risk in HIV-Infected MSM: A Longitudinal Analysis of Data From Six Sites Involved in a “Prevention for Positives” Study
- 544 Downloads
Depression is highly comorbid with HIV and may contribute to increased sexual transmission risk behavior (TRB) amongst HIV-infected MSM, the largest risk group for HIV in the U.S. However, examinations of this effect are inconsistent. The present longitudinal analyses of 746 HIV-infected MSM is from a multi-site “prevention for positives” study. A non-linear association between depression and TRB emerged. Moderate levels of depression (compared to either low or high levels) were associated with a more modest decline in the odds of sexual risk behavior over 12-month follow-up. Assessing depression in HIV primary care settings may help to identify those at risk and integrating the treatment of depression into secondary prevention and treatment initiatives may decrease the likelihood of sexual risk and help to contain the epidemic among MSM.
KeywordsHIV prevention with positives Men who have sex with men Sexual risk Depression
This project was supported by a Grant awarded to Kenneth H. Mayer from the Health Resources and Services Administration Projects of National Significance Initiative (H97HA01293-01-00). During the preparation of this manuscript, Steven A. Safren was supported by a Grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (K24MH094214). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the HRSA or the National Institute of Mental Health.The authors would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the Cross-Site Depression Prevention for Positives Team: Laura H. Bachman (University of Alabama), Ken Burton (El Rio Neighborhood Health Center), Nancy Glick (Mt. Sinai Hospital Chicago), Lourdes Illa (University of Miami), Steve Morin (University of California San Francisco), and E. Byrd Quinlivan (University of North Carolina), and the HRSA SPNS Project Officer, Faye Malitz.
- 1.Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Fact sheet: HIV among gay and bisexual men. Division of HIV/AIDS prevention, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA, http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/msm/pdf/msm.pdf. Accessed 14 Apr 2013.
- 8.Myers JJ, Shade SB, Rose CD, Koester K, Maiorana A, Malitz FE, et al. Interventions delivered in clinical settings are effective in reducing risk of HIV transmission among people living with HIV: results from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)’s Special Projects of National Significance initiative. AIDS Behav. 2010;14:483–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF. Manual: Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational & Industrial Testing Service; 1971.Google Scholar
- 15.Beck AT. Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; 2006.Google Scholar
- 16.Rosenthal R, Rosnow RL. Essential of behavioral research; methods and data analysis. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 1991.Google Scholar
- 17.Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. NJ Erlbaum: Hillsdale; 1988.Google Scholar
- 18.Hedges LV, Olkin I. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando: Academic; 1985.Google Scholar
- 20.Raudenbush SW, Bryk AS. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2002.Google Scholar
- 22.Ironson G, O’Cleirigh C, Leserman J, Stuetzle R, Fordiani J, Fletcher MA, et al. Gender specific effects of an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention on osttraumatic, depressive and HIV disease-related outcomes: a randomized, controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psych. 2013;81(2):284–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar