AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 2022–2030 | Cite as

Rapid HIV Testing for Individuals on Probation/Parole: Outcomes of an Intervention Trial

  • Michael S. GordonEmail author
  • Timothy W. Kinlock
  • Michelle McKenzie
  • Monique E. Wilson
  • Josiah D. Rich
Original Paper


Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.


Rapid testing Probation Parole HIV HIV risk behaviors 



This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Grant R01 DA 16237 (Principal Investigators: Michael S. Gordon, D. P. A, Josiah D. Rich, M. D.). This work was also supported by Grants R01DA030771 and K24DA022112 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and P30AI042853 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or the National Institutes of Health. We wish to thank NIDA staff, Drs. Redonna K. Chandler, Shoshana, Kahanna, and Dionne Jones. The authors are also grateful for the strong and continued support of the Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services and the Rhode Island Division of Corrections (probation and parole). We would also like to thank the staff of the off-site community clinics—Chase Brexton Health Services, Community Access—a satellite clinic of The Miriam Hospital, and the Immunology Center at The Miriam Hospital. Finally, we appreciate the contributions of the Project staff as well as those of Ms. Melissa Irwin for manuscript preparation and assistance with submission. Trial Registration:, NCT01366495.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael S. Gordon
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Timothy W. Kinlock
    • 1
    • 3
  • Michelle McKenzie
    • 4
  • Monique E. Wilson
    • 1
  • Josiah D. Rich
    • 4
  1. 1.Friends Research Institute, Inc.BaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Criminal JusticeStevenson UniversityStevensonUSA
  3. 3.College of Public Affairs, School of Criminal JusticeUniversity of BaltimoreBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Brown University Medical School, The Miriam Hospital, The Center for Prisoner Health and Human RightsProvidenceUSA

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