AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 2479–2489

High Uptake of HIV Testing in a Cohort of Male Injection Drug Users in Delhi, India: Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection

  • Avina Sarna
  • Waimar Tun
  • Vartika Sharma
  • Mary Sebastian
  • Ira Madan
  • Amita Yadav
  • Meredith Sheehy
  • Dean Lewis
  • Ibou Thior
Original Paper


We report baseline findings from a longitudinal cohort study to examine HIV incidence, high-risk injection and sexual behaviors of 3,792 male injection drug users (IDUs) in Delhi. The majority (95.4 %) accepted HIV testing; HIV prevalence was 21.9 %. In multivariate analysis, belonging to states adjacent to Delhi (AOR: 1.23; 95 % CI: 1.07–1.52), earning INR 500–1,500 (AOR: 2.38; 95 % CI: 1.43–3.96); duration of drug use 2–5 years (AOR: 2.02; 95 % CI: 1.09–3.73), 6–10 years (AOR: 2.81; 95 % CI: 1.55–5.11), ≥11 years (AOR: 3.35; 95 % CI: 1.84–6.11); prior HIV testing (AOR: 1.60; 95 % CI: 1.35–1.91), self-reported risky-injection behavior (AOR: 1.60; 95 % CI: 1.33–1.92), and utilization of harm-reduction services (AOR: 1.32; 95 % CI: 1.11–1.58) were positively associated with HIV infection. Alcohol use ≤2 times/week (AOR: 0.67; 95 % CI: 0.55–0.82) or ≥3 times/week (AOR: 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.54–1.01), unit increase in age (AOR: 0.99; 95 % CI: 0.98–1.00), ≥7 years of schooling (AOR: 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.66–1.02) and unsafe sex with any female partner (AOR: 0.69; 95 % CI: 0.55–0.86) were negatively associated with HIV infection. HIV prevalence remains high among male IDUs in Delhi. HIV prevention programs should include comprehensive package of services for IDUs.


Injection drug user HIV Harm reduction Sexual behavior Unsafe injection practices 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avina Sarna
    • 1
  • Waimar Tun
    • 2
  • Vartika Sharma
    • 3
  • Mary Sebastian
    • 3
  • Ira Madan
    • 4
  • Amita Yadav
    • 3
  • Meredith Sheehy
    • 5
  • Dean Lewis
    • 4
  • Ibou Thior
    • 6
  1. 1.Population CouncilNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Population CouncilWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Population CouncilNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Sahara Centre for Residential Care and RehabilitationNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.One Dag Hammarskjold PlazaNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.ARISE Project, PATHWashingtonUSA

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