AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Supplement 2, pp 181–191 | Cite as

Social Environmental Factors and Condom Use Among Female Injection Drug Users who are Sex Workers in China

  • Jing GuEmail author
  • Yu Bai
  • Joseph T. F. Lau
  • Yuantao Hao
  • Yu Cheng
  • Runan Zhou
  • Chengpu Yu
Original Paper


In order to understand the social environmental forces faced by females involved in both injection drug use and sex work, and their associations with condom use during commercial sex, 200 participants were recruited using snowball sampling methods in Liuzhou, China. Of the participants, 41.0 % used condoms consistently during commercial sex in the last 6 months. Adjusting for significant background variables, factors significantly associated with consistent condom use included: monthly income, soliciting venue, pattern of sex-work organization, experience of violence, social support, others’ support of condom use, and utilization of HIV/STI-related services. In the final multivariate model, history of violence (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI = 0.12–0.44), service utilization (OR = 2.18, 95 % CI = 1.05–5.20), clients’ willingness to use condoms (OR = 2.63, 95 % CI = 1.06–6.54) and social support (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI = 0.12–0.44) were significant. Service gaps for FSW-IDU exist, and expansion of social services and integration of psychosocial interventions are necessary.


Injection drug user Female sex worker Social environment Condom China HIV/STI 



This study is supported by the Partnership for Social Science Research on HIV/AIDS in China (NIH Grant # R24 HD056670), the UNC Center for AIDS Research (NIH Grant # P30 AI50410) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2009158). The authors would like to thank Dr. Gail Henderson, Ms. Laurie Abler and Ms. Malena Rousseau for their inputs in manuscript revision. The authors would also thank all doctors of the Syringe Exchange Centers of Liuzhou CDC. We extend thanks to all participants of the study.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interests of all authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Gu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yu Bai
    • 2
  • Joseph T. F. Lau
    • 3
  • Yuantao Hao
    • 1
  • Yu Cheng
    • 4
  • Runan Zhou
    • 4
  • Chengpu Yu
    • 4
  1. 1.309, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Liuzhou Center for Disease Prevention and ControlGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Center for Health Behaviours Research, School of Public Health and Primary CareFaculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Centre for Medical Anthropology and Behavioral Health, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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