AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 8, pp 2808–2815

Sleep, Function and HIV: A Multi-Method Assessment

  • Charlene E. Gamaldo
  • Adam P. Spira
  • Rebecca S. Hock
  • Rachel E. Salas
  • Justin C. McArthur
  • Paula M. David
  • Gilbert Mbeo
  • Michael T. Smith


Amongst HIV+ individuals, sleep complaints have been recognized as common and debilitating; but have rarely been formally assessed or compared to controls using validated sleep tools. In this study we conducted structured interview for sleep disorders, polysomnography, 2-week home (ambulatory) monitoring and validated sleep/functional questionnaires. 56 % (14/25) of HIV+ participants and 0 % (0/19) of controls fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Insomnia severity scores were correlated with fatigue and anxiety symptoms. Sleep latency on 2-week actigraphy was significantly longer (P = 0.027) for HIV+ participants and associated with lower MOS-HIV scores. Sleep quality was significantly reduced in HIV+ participants based on validated questionnaires of overall sleep quality (P = 0.0017) and insomnia related symptoms (P < 0.001) even after adjusting for education and affective symptoms. HIV+ individuals are suffering with under-diagnosed sleep disorders that are negatively impacting quality of life and functional capabilities. Further studies aimed at improving recognition of sleep disorders and implementation of efficacious medical and behavioral treatment could improve functioning and disease management.


HIV Sleep Sleep disorders Quality of life Daytime function 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlene E. Gamaldo
    • 1
  • Adam P. Spira
    • 2
  • Rebecca S. Hock
    • 2
  • Rachel E. Salas
    • 1
  • Justin C. McArthur
    • 3
  • Paula M. David
    • 1
  • Gilbert Mbeo
    • 1
  • Michael T. Smith
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins Outpatient CenterJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mental HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Neurology, Pathology, Epidemiology, and MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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