AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Supplement 2, pp 89–99 | Cite as

The Role of Jails in Engaging PLWHA in Care: From Jail to Community

  • Richard C. Rapp
  • Rachel Ciomcia
  • Nick Zaller
  • Jeff Draine
  • Ann Ferguson
  • Robin Cagey
Original Paper


HIV testing in jails has provided public health officials with the opportunity to not only identify new cases of HIV but to also reestablish contact with previously diagnosed individuals, many of whom never entered care following diagnosis or entered care but then dropped out. The presence of inmates throughout the HIV/AIDS continuum of care suggests that jails can play a strategic role in engaging persons living with HIV and AIDS in care. In order to be successful in structuring HIV/AIDS programs in jails, health care and correctional officials will be well-served to: (1) understand the HIV/AIDS continuum of care from the standpoint of engagement interventions that promote participation; (2) be aware of jail, community, and prison interventions that promote engagement in care; (3) anticipate and plan for the unique barriers jails provide in implementing engagement interventions; and, (4) be creative in designing engagement interventions suitable for both newly and previously diagnosed individuals.


HIV AIDS Jail Engagement Linkage Retention Adherence Continuum of care 



The authors would like to thank the HRSA for their support of the EnhanceLink Initiative under which this paper was prepared.


  1. 1.
    Spaulding AC, Arriola KRJ, Hammett T, et al. Rapid HIV testing in rapidly released detainees: next steps. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36(2):S34–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Draine J, Ahuja D, Altice FL, et al. Strategies to enhance linkages between care for HIV/AIDS in jail and community settings. AIDS Care. 2011;23(3):366–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen SM, Van Handel MM, Branson BM, et al. HIV prevention through care and treatment-United States. In: Prevention DoHA, National Center for HIV/AIDS VH, STD, TB Prevention, editors. Vital signs, vol. 60. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011. p. 1618–23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheever LW. Engaging HIV-infected patients in care: their lives depend on it. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(11):1500–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giordano TP, Gifford AL, White AC Jr, et al. Retention in care: a challenge to survival with HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(11):1493–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Samet JH, Freedberg KA, Savetsky JB, et al. Discontinuation from HIV medical care: squandering treatment opportunities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2003;14(2):244–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ulett KB, Willig JH, Lin HY, et al. The therapeutic implications of timely linkage and early retention in HIV care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(1):41–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mugavero MJ, Norton WE, Saag MS. Health care system and policy factors influencing engagement in HIV medical care: piecing together the fragments of a fractured health care delivery system. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 2):S238–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheever LW, Lubinski C, Horberg M, Steinberg JL. Ensuring access to treatment for HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:S266–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mugavero MJ, Lin H-Y, Willig JH, et al. Missed visits and mortality among patients establishing initial outpatient HIV treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48(2):248–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Christopoulos KA, Kaplan B, Dowdy D, et al. Testing and linkage to care outcomes for a clinician-initiated rapid HIV testing program in an urban emergency department. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011;25(7):439–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Surratt HL, Kurtz SP, Chen MX, Mooss A. HIV risk among female sex workers in Miami: the impact of violent victimization and untreated mental illness. AIDS Care. 2012;24(5):553–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shannon K, Kerr T, Milloy MJ, et al. Severe food insecurity is associated with elevated unprotected sex among HIV-seropositive injection drug users independent of HAART use. AIDS. 2011;25(16):2037–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    German D, Latkin CA. Social stability and HIV risk behavior: evaluating the role of accumulated vulnerability. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(1):168–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Milloy MJ, Kerr T, Bangsberg DR, et al. Homelessness as a structural barrier to effective antiretroviral therapy among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting. Aids Patient Care STDS. 2012;26(1):60–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fleishman JA, Mor V, Piette J. AIDS case management—the clients perspective. Health Serv Res. 1991;26(4):447–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sonsel GE, Paradise F, Stroup S. Case management practice in an AIDS service organization. Soc Casework. 1988;69(6):388–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenberg JB, MacGowan R, Neumann M, et al. Linking injection drug users to medical services: role of street outreach referrals. Health Soc Work. 1998;23(4):298–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rajabiun S, Mallinson RK, McCoy K, et al. “Getting me back on track”: the role of outreach interventions in engaging and retaining people living with HIV/AIDS in medical care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21:S20–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laufer FN, Arriola KRJ, Dawson-Rose CS, Kumaravelu K, Rapposelli KK. From jail to community: innovative strategies to enhance continuity of HIV/AIDS care. Prison J. 2002;82(1):84–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    National Association of Social Workers. NASW standards for social work case management. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers; 1992.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ballew JR, Mink G. Case management in social work. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1996.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gardner LI, Metsch LR, Anderson-Mahoney P, et al. Efficacy of a brief case management intervention to link recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons to care. AIDS. 2005;19(4):423–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carr CJA, Xu J, Redko C, et al. Individual and system influences on waiting time for substance abuse treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008;34(2):192–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rapp RC, Otto AL, Lane DT, et al. Improving linkage with substance abuse treatment using brief case management and motivational interviewing. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;94(1–3):172–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Craw JA, Gardner LI, Marks G, et al. Brief strengths-based case management promotes entry into HIV medical care: results of the Antiretroviral Treatment Access Study-II. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47(5):597–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sorensen JL, Dilley J, London J, et al. Case management for substance abusers with HIV/AIDS: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2003;29(1):133–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wohl DA, Scheyett A, Golin CE, et al. Intensive case management before and after prison release is no more effective than comprehensive pre-release discharge planning in linking HIV-infected prisoners to care: a randomized trial. AIDS Behav. 2010;15(2):356–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rich JD, Holmes L, Salas C, et al. Successful linkage of medical care and community services for HIV-positive offenders being released from prison. J Urban Health. 2001;78(2):279–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nunn A, Cornwall A, Fu J, et al. Linking HIV-positive jail inmates to treatment, care, and social services after release: results from a qualitative assessment of the COMPASS Program. J Urban Health. 2010;87(6):954–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mutchler MG, Wagner G, Cowgill BO, et al. Improving HIV/AIDS care through treatment advocacy: going beyond client education to empowerment by facilitating client-provider relationships. AIDS Care. 2011;23(1):79–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hightow-Weidman LB, Smith JC, Valera E, Matthews DD, Lyons P. Keeping them in “STYLE”: finding, linking, and retaining young HIV-positive black and latino men who have sex with men in care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011;25(1):37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lo W, MacGovern T, Bradford J. Association of ancillary services with primary care utilization and retention for patients with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care. 2002;14:S45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sherer R, Stieglitz K, Narra J, et al. HIV multidisciplinary teams work: support services improve access to and retention in HIV primary care. AIDS Care. 2002;14:S31–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cabral HJ, Tobias C, Rajabiun S. Outreach program contacts: do they increase the likelihood of engagement and retention in HIV primary care for hard-to-reach patients? AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(Suppl1):S59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cunningham WE, Sohler NL, Tobias C, et al. Health services utilization for people with HIV infection: comparison of a population targeted for outreach with the U.S. population in care. J Intern Med. 2006;44(11):1038–47.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bradford JB, Coleman S, Cunningham W. HIV system navigation: an emerging model to improve HIV care access. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(Suppl1):S49–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Broadhead RS, Heckathorn DD, Altice FL, et al. Increasing drug users’ adherence to HIV treatment: results of a peer-driven intervention feasibility study. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55(2):235–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spaulding AC, Sumbry AR, Brzozowski AK, et al. Pairing HIV-positive prisoners with volunteer life coaches to maintain health-promoting behavior upon release: a mixed-methods needs analysis and pilot study. AIDS Educ Prev. 2009;21(6):552–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Molitor F, Kuenneth C, Waltermeyer J, et al. Linking HIV-infected persons of color and injection drug users to HIV medical and other services: the California Bridge Project. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19(6):406–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Molitor F, Waltermeyer J, Mendoza M, et al. Locating and linking to medical care HIV-positive persons without a history of care: findings from the California Bridge Project. AIDS Care. 2006;18(5):456–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Amico KR, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, et al. Visual analog scale of ART adherence: association with 3-day self-report and adherence barriers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42(4):455–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chen LF, Hoy J, Lewin SR. Ten years of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. Med J Aust. 2007;186(3):146–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Simoni JM, Amico KR, Pearson CR, Malow R. Strategies for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a review of the literature. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2008;10(6):515–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Starace F, Massa A, Arnico KR, Fisher JD. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: an empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. Health Psychol. 2006;25(2):153–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wagner GJ, Kanouse DE, Golinelli D, et al. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to enhance adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS. 2006;20(9):1295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Conway B. The role of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the management of HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;45:S14–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Samet JH, Horton NJ, Meli S, et al. A randomized controlled trial to enhance antiretroviral therapy adherence in patients with a history of alcohol problems. Antivir Ther. 2005;10(1):83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rueda S, Park-Wyllie LY, Bayoumi A, et al. Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2006. Accessed 12 June 2012.
  50. 50.
    Fisher JD, Amico KR, Fisher WA, et al. Computer-based intervention in HIV clinical care setting improves antiretroviral adherence: the LifeWindows Project. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(8):1635–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Enriquez M, An-Lin C, McKinsey DS, Stanford J. Development and efficacy of an intervention to enhance readiness for adherence among adults who had previously failed HIV treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(3):177–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cunningham CO, Sohler NL, Cooperman NA, Berg KM, Litwin AH, Arnsten JH. Strategies to improve access to and utilization of health care services and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected drug users. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46:218–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shelton RC, Golin CE, Smith SR, Eng E, Kaplan A. Role of the HIV/AIDS case manager: analysis of a case management adherence training and coordination program in North Carolina. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20(3):193–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wohl AR, Garland WH, Valencia R, et al. A randomized trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy and adherence case management intervention. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42(11):1619–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Altice FL, Mezger JA, Hodges J, et al. Developing a directly administered antiretroviral therapy intervention for HIV-infected drug users: implications for program replication. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:S376–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lucas GM, Chaudhry A, Hsu J, et al. Clinic-based treatment of opioid-dependent HIV-infected patients versus referral to an opioid treatment program: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(11):1628–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Baillargeon J, Giordano TP, Rich JD, et al. Accessing antiretroviral therapy following release from prison. JAMA. 2009;301(8):848–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stephenson B, Wohl D, Golin C, et al. Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals. Public Health Rep. 2005;120(1):84–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Springer SA, Pesanti E, Hodges J, et al. Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: reincarceration and the lack of sustained benefit after release to the community. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(12):1754–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Altice FL, Mostashari F, Friedland GH. Trust and the acceptance of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;28(1):47–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moini S, Hammett T. Trends in HIV antibody testing and housing policies for infected prisoners among USA correctional sytems 1985–1989. Sixth International Conference on AIDS. San Francisco: University of California; 1990.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roberson DW, White BL, Fogel CI. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected female inmates. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2009;20(1):50–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Small W, Wood E, Betteridge G, Montaner J, Kerr T. The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: a qualitative study. AIDS Care. 2009;21(6):708–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Copenhaver M, Chowdhury S, Altice FL. Adaptation of an evidence-based intervention targeting HIV-infected prisoners transitioning to the community: the process and outcome of formative research for the positive living using safety (PLUS) intervention. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(4):277–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lincoln T, Kennedy S, Tuthhill R, et al. Facilitators and barriers to continuing healthcare after jail: a community-integrated program. J Ambul Care Manage. 2006;29(1):2–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    De Groot AS, Dilorenzo M, Sylla M, Bick J. Challenges and opportunities for HIV care in jails and prisons in the United States. Int J Prisoner Health. 2006;2(3):173–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Draine J, McTighe L, Bourgois P. Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: an HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2011;34(4):295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ehrmann T. Community-based organizations and HIV prevention for incarcerated populations: three HIV prevention program models. AIDS Educ Prev. 2002;14(5):75–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Redko C, Rapp RC, Elms C, Snyder M, Carlson RG. Understanding the working alliance between persons with substance abuse problems and strengths-based case managers. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2007;39(3):241–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard C. Rapp
    • 1
  • Rachel Ciomcia
    • 2
  • Nick Zaller
    • 3
  • Jeff Draine
    • 4
  • Ann Ferguson
    • 5
  • Robin Cagey
    • 6
  1. 1.Boonshoft School of MedicineWright State UniversityClaytonUSA
  2. 2.ATLAS ProgramCare Alliance Health CenterClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Warren Alpert Medical SchoolBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  4. 4.School of Social WorkTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.AIDS Care GroupChesterUSA
  6. 6.New York City Department of Health and Mental HygieneNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations