AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 551–558 | Cite as

Gender Based Violence as a Risk Factor for HIV-Associated Risk Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in Armenia

  • Delia L. LangEmail author
  • Laura F. Salazar
  • Ralph J. DiClemente
  • Karine Markosyan
Original Research


This cross-sectional study identified the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV) and examined its association with sexual risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs). Among 120 participants between ages 20 and 52, a total of 56.7 % reported lifetime GBV. Multivariate analyses revealed that GBV was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use, unprotected sex, condom misuse, fear of client reaction to requests of condom use, self-reported history of STIs, and earlier age of initiation of sex work. GBV must be considered an urgent public health priority among FSWs in Armenia. Interventions addressing FSWs, in addition to targeting skill-based, sexual risk reduction must also introduce a discourse among FSWs, sexual partners, clients and community members about the role of GBV in HIV-associated risk behaviors and infection. Structural level initiatives must address economic opportunities for women, health-sector policies and responses to FSWs’ health needs, law enforcement training and societal norms toward women.


Gender based violence Female sex workers HIV-risk 



This research was supported by the US Civil Research and Development Foundation (ARX1-2719-YE-06) and the NIH/FIC AIDS International Training and Research Program of the Emory University (2D43TWO1042). We would like to thank the women who participated in this study as well as Drs. Nora Mnatsakanyan and Marina Khachaturyan of Hope and Help NGO for their dedication to this study and to the women of Yerevan, Armenia.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Delia L. Lang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Laura F. Salazar
    • 3
  • Ralph J. DiClemente
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Karine Markosyan
    • 5
  1. 1.Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Emory Center for AIDS ResearchEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Public HealthGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Division of Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology and Immunology, Department of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Department of PediatricsEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.College of Health SciencesAmerican University of ArmeniaYerevanArmenia

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