AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 1115–1120 | Cite as

Cost–Utility Analysis of A Female Condom Promotion Program in Washington, DC

  • David R. HoltgraveEmail author
  • Catherine Maulsby
  • Michael Kharfen
  • Yujiang Jia
  • Charles Wu
  • Jenevieve Opoku
  • Tiffany West
  • Gregory Pappas
Original Paper


A retrospective economic evaluation of a female condom distribution and education program in Washington, DC. was conducted. Standard methods of cost, threshold and cost–utility analysis were utilized as recommended by the U.S. Panel on cost-effectiveness in health and medicine. The overall cost of the program that distributed 200,000 female condoms and provided educational services was $414,186 (at a total gross cost per condom used during sex of $3.19, including educational services). The number of HIV infections that would have to be averted in order for the program to be cost-saving was 1.13 in the societal perspective and 1.50 in the public sector payor perspective. The cost-effectiveness threshold of HIV infections to be averted was 0.46. Overall, mathematical modeling analyses estimated that the intervention averted approximately 23 HIV infections (even with the uncertainty inherent in this estimate, this value appears to well exceed the necessary thresholds), and the intervention resulted in a substantial net cost savings.


Female condom HIV prevention Economics Cost-effectiveness analysis Policy analysis 



Johns Hopkins University received support for this economic evaluation from the Female Health Company, the producer of the female condom product, FC2. The Washington DC Department of Health received support for the FC2 dissemination and education project from the Female Health Company; the educational project was also supported by the MAC AIDS Fund. Further details on this public/private sector partnership are provided in the text. Final control of the analysis and publication rested with the authors, not with any sponsor.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Holtgrave
    • 1
    Email author
  • Catherine Maulsby
    • 1
  • Michael Kharfen
    • 2
  • Yujiang Jia
    • 2
  • Charles Wu
    • 2
  • Jenevieve Opoku
    • 2
  • Tiffany West
    • 2
  • Gregory Pappas
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Health, Behavior & SocietyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD & TB AdministrationD.C. Department of HealthWashingtonUSA

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