AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 523–535 | Cite as

Social and Structural Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among Female Entertainment Workers Trading Sex in the Philippines

  • Lianne A. Urada
  • Donald E. Morisky
  • Laufred I. Hernandez
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
Original Paper


This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers’ condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.


Condom use Philippines Female sex workers HIV/AIDS Socio-structural Trafficking 


Este artículo examina los factores socio-estructurales de uso constante de condones entre las trabajadoras sexuales con alto riesgo de contraer el VIH en Metro Manila, Quezon City, Filipinas. Las trabajadoras, mayores de 18 años, de 25 establecimientos (spa/saunas, clubes nocturnos, bares de karaoke), quienes negociaron el sexo durante los últimos 6 meses, se sometieron a los estudios transversales. Los 143 trabajadores (el 42% no siempre utilizó condones, el 58% siempre utilizó condones) tenían una edad mediana (23), una duración en el trabajo sexual (7 meses), educación (9 años), y el 29% estaban casados/cohabitaba con novios. En un modelo de regresión logística múltiple, los factores socio-estructural en comparación con factores individuales fueron asociados con el uso inconsistente del condón: el estar obligado/engañado al trabajo sexual, menos contacto con el gerente, menos conocimiento de la prevención de ITS/VIH adquirido por el personal médico, no seguir el consejo de una compañera sobre el uso de condones, y una interacción entre el tipo de establecimiento y el consumo de alcohol de los clientes. Las intervenciones deben considerar los efectos físicas (forzada a hacer/el engaño en el trabajo), sociales (entre compañeras, la influencia del gerente), y contextos de política (conocimiento de la prevención de ITS/VIH adquirido por el personal médico) de uso consistente del condón.



Support for this project was provided by the University of California Office of the President Pacific Rim Research Program, the UCLA International Institute, the UCLA Graduate Division to the Community Health Science Department’s Pre-doctoral Training Program in the Social and Behavioral Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevention, and a training grant from the National Institutes of Drug Abuse (T32 DA023356). We extend appreciation to Benilda de Guia and the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement, Inc. team, Dr. Nymia Pimentel-Simbulan at the University of the Philippines Manila, and Dr. Irene Grafil of the Quezon City Health Department.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lianne A. Urada
    • 1
  • Donald E. Morisky
    • 2
  • Laufred I. Hernandez
    • 3
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, San Diego School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLa Jolla, San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Community Health Sciences, School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral Sciences, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of the PhilippinesManilaPhilippines

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