AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 376–388 | Cite as

Challenges in Addressing Depression in HIV Research: Assessment, Cultural Context, and Methods

  • Jane M. Simoni
  • Steven A. Safren
  • Lisa E. Manhart
  • Karen Lyda
  • Cynthia I. Grossman
  • Deepa Rao
  • Matthew J. Mimiaga
  • Frank Y. Wong
  • Sheryl L. Catz
  • Michael B. Blank
  • Ralph DiClemente
  • Ira B. Wilson
Original paper

Abstract

Depression is one of the most common co-morbidities of HIV infection. It negatively impacts self-care, quality of life, and biomedical outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH) and may interfere with their ability to benefit from health promotion interventions. State-of-the-science research among PLWH, therefore, must address depression. To guide researchers, we describe the main diagnostic, screening, and symptom-rating measures of depression, offering suggestions for selecting the most appropriate instrument. We also address cultural considerations in the assessment of depression among PLWH, emphasizing the need to consider measurement equivalence and offering strategies for developing measures that are valid cross-culturally. Finally, acknowledging the high prevalence of depression among PLWH, we provide guidance to researchers on incorporating depression into the theoretical framework of their studies and employing procedures that account for participants with depression.

Keywords

HIV/AIDS Depression Research methods Measurement 

References

  1. 1.
    Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, Fleishman JA, Sherbourne CD, London AS, et al. Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(8):721–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Valente SM. Depression and HIV disease. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2003;14(2):41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kessler RC, Gruber M, Hettema JM, Hwang I, Sampson N, Yonkers KA. Co-morbid major depression and generalized anxiety disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey follow-up. Psychol Med. 2008;38(3):365–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Safren S, Gonzalez J, Soroudi N. Coping with chronic illness: a cognitive-behavioral approach for adherence and depression. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelley K, Bluthé R, Dantzer R, Zhou J, Shen W, Johnson R, et al. Cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2003;17:62–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kopinsky K, Stoff D, Rausch D. Workshop report: the effects of psychological variables on the progression of HIV-1 disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2004;18:246–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schroecksnadel K, Sarcletti M, Winkler C, Mumelter B, Weiss G, Fuchs D, et al. Quality of life and immune activation in patients with HIV-infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:881–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kalichman SC. Understanding AIDS: advances in research and treatment. Washington, DC: America Psychological Association; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gonzalez J, Hendriksen E, Collins E, Duran R, Safren S. Latinos and HIV/AIDS: examining factors related to disparity and identifying opportunities for psychosocial intervention research. AIDS Behav. 2009;13:582–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mutchler M, Bogart L, Elliott M, McKay T, Suttorp M, Schuster M. Psychosocial correlates of unprotected sex without disclosure of HIV-positivity among African-American, Latino, and White men who have sex with men and women. Arch Sex Behav. 2008;37:736–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simoni J, Demas P, Mason H, Drossman J, Davis M. HIV disclosure among women of African descent: associations with coping, social support, and psychological adaptation. AIDS Behav. 2000;4(2):147–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rabkin J, McElhiney M, Ferrando S. Mood and substance use disorders in older adults with HIV/AIDS: methodological issues and preliminary evidence. AIDS. 2004;18(Suppl 1):S43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    CDC. HIV prevalence estimates-United States, 2006. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:1073–6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rabkin JG. HIV and depression: 2008 review and update. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2008;5(4):163–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tegger MK, Crane HM, Tapia KA, Uldall KK, Holte SE, Kitahata MM. The effect of mental illness, substance use, and treatment for depression on the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(3):233–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kacanek D, Jacobson D, Spiegelman D, Wanke C, Isaac R, Wilson I. Incident depression symptoms are associated with poorer HAART adherence: a longitudinal analysis from the Nutrition for Healthy Living study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009; Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lima V, Geller J, Bangsberg D, Patterson T, Daniel M, Kerr T, et al. The effect of adherence on the association between depressive symptoms and mortality among HIV-infected individuals first initiating HAART. AIDS. 2007;21(9):1175–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bolton JM, Robinson J, Sareen J. Self-medication of mood disorders with alcohol and drugs in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Affect Disord. 2009;115(3):367–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Howland RH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Trivedi MH, Warden D, Fava M, et al. Concurrent anxiety and substance use disorders among outpatients with major depression: clinical features and effect on treatment outcome. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99(1–3):248–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davis L, Uezato A, Newell JM, Frazier E. Major depression and comorbid substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21:14–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dixit AR, Crum RM. Prospective study of depression and the risk of heavy alcohol use in women. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(5):751–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kalichman SC, Kelly JA, Rompa D. Continued high-risk sex among HIV seropositive gay and bisexual men seeking HIV prevention services. Health Psychol. 1997;16(4):369–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tucker JS, Burnam MA, Sherbourne CD, Kung FY, Gifford AL. Substance use and mental health correlates of nonadherence to antiretroviral medications in a sample of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med. 2003;114(7):573–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Keiser O, Spoerri A, Brinkhof M, Hasse B, Gayet-Ageron A, Tissot F, et al. Suicide in HIV-infected individuals and the general population in Switzerland, 1988–2008. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(2):143–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kalichman S, Heckman T, Kochman A, Sikkema K, Bergholte J. Depression and thoughts of suicide among middle-aged and older persons living with HIV-AIDS. Psychiatr Serv. 2000;51(7):903–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Olatunji B, Mimiaga M, O’Cleirigh C, Safren S. Review of treatment studies of depression in HIV. Top HIV Med. 2006;14(3):112–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Markowitz J, Rabkin J, Perry S. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients. AIDS. 1994;8(4):403–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee M, Cohen L, Hadley S, Goodwin F. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy with medication for depressed gay men with AIDS or symptomatic HIV infection. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50(7):948–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Markowitz J, Kocsis J, Fishman B, Spielman L, Jacobsberg L, Frances A, et al. Treatment of depressive symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(5):452–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kelly J, Murphy D, Bahr G, Kalichman S, Morgan M, Stevenson L, et al. Outcome of cognitive-behavioral and support group brief therapies for depressed, HIV-infected persons. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(11):1679–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    APA. Diagnostics and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Williams JW Jr, Noel PH, Cordes JA, Ramirez G, Pignone M. Is this patient clinically depressed? JAMA. 2002;287(9):1160–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Asch SM, Kilbourne AM, Gifford AL, Burnam MA, Turner B, Shapiro MF, et al. Underdiagnosis of depression in HIV: who are we missing? J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(6):450–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Olley BO, Seedat S, Nei DG, Stein DJ. Predictors of major depression in recently diagnosed patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2004;18(8):481–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hatzenbuehler ML, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Erickson SJ. Minority stress predictors of HIV risk behavior, substance use, and depressive symptoms: results from a prospective study of bereaved gay men. Health Psychol. 2008;27(4):455–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Monahan PO, Shacham E, Reece M, Kroenke K, Ong’or WO, Omollo O, et al. Validity/reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 depression scales among adults living with HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24(2):189–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cockram A, Judd FK, Mijch A, Norman T. The evaluation of depression in inpatients with HIV disease. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999;33(3):344–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kalichman SC, Rompa D, Cage M. Distinguishing between overlapping somatic symptoms of depression and HIV disease in people living with HIV-AIDS. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000;188(10):662–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Voss J, Portillo CJ, Holzemer WL, Dodd MJ. Symptom cluster of fatigue and depression in HIV/AIDS. J Prev Interv Community. 2007;33(1–2):19–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kearns NP, Cruickshank CA, McGuigan KJ, Riley SA, Shaw SP, Snaith RP. A comparison of depression rating scales. Br J Psychiatry. 1982;141:45–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Koenig HG, George LK, Peterson BL, Pieper CF. Depression in medically ill hospitalized older adults: prevalence, characteristics, and course of symptoms according to six diagnostic schemes. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(10):1376–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koenig HG, Pappas P, Holsinger T, Bachar JR. Assessing diagnostic approaches to depression in medically ill older adults: how reliably can mental health professionals make judgments about the cause of symptoms? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43(5):472–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rapp SR, Vrana S. Substituting nonsomatic for somatic symptoms in the diagnosis of depression in elderly male medical patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146(9):1197–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kathol RG, Mutgi A, Williams J, Clamon G, Noyes R Jr. Diagnosis of major depression in cancer patients according to four sets of criteria. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147(8):1021–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mulrow CD, Williams JW Jr, Gerety MB, Ramirez G, Montiel OM, Kerber C. Case-finding instruments for depression in primary care settings. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(12):913–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maj M, Janssen R, Starace F, Zaudig M, Satz P, Sughondhabirom B, et al. WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I. Study design and psychiatric findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994;51(1):39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hirshfield S, Wolitski RJ, Chiasson MA, Remien RH, Humberstone M, Wong T. Screening for depressive symptoms in an online sample of men who have sex with men. AIDS Care. 2008;20(8):904–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crane P, Gibbons L, Willig J, Mugavero M, Lawrence S, Schumacher J, et al. Measuring depression levels in HIV-infected patients as part of routine clinical care using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). AIDS Care. 2010;22(7):874–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kalichman SC, Weinhardt L. Negative affect and sexual risk behavior: comment on Crepaz and Marks (2001). Health Psychol. 2001;20(4):300–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Okawa J. Considerations for the cross-cultural evaluation of refugees and asylum seekers. In: Suzuki L, Ponterotto J, editors. Handbook of multicultural assessment: clinical psychological, and educational applications. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2008. p. 165–94.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weiss MG, Kleinman A. Depression in cross-cultural perspective: developing a cultural informed model. Cross-cultural research and methodology series. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1988.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wierzbicka A. Emotion, language, and cultural scripts. Emotion and culture: empirical studies of mutual influence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1994.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zung WW. A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1965;12:63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kazarian SS, Evans DR. Cultural clinical psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    WHO. Depressive disorders in different cultures: report of the WHO collaborative study of standardized assessment of depressive disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1983.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Simon GE, VonKorff M, Piccinelli M, Fullerton C, Ormel J. An international study of the relation between somatic symptoms and depression. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(18):1329–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kleinman AM. Depression, somatization and the “new cross-cultural psychiatry”. Soc Sci Med. 1977;11(1):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jin H, Hampton Atkinson J, Yu X, Heaton RK, Shi C, Marcotte TP, et al. Depression and suicidality in HIV/AIDS in China. J Affect Disord. 2006;94(1–3):269–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4:561–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weiss MG. Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC): framework for comparative study of illness. Transcult Psychiatry. 1997;34:235–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rao D, Young M, Raguram R. Culture, somatization and psychological distress: a study of symptom presentation in South Indian psychiatric patients from a public hospital. Psychopathology. 2007;40:349–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Raguram R, Weiss M, Keval H, Channabasavanna SM. Cultural dimensions of clinical depression in Bangalore, India. Anthropol Med. 2001;8:31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kim A, Lim EY. How critical is back translation in cross-cultural adaptation of attitude measures? Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association; April 19–23, 1999; Montreal, Quebec, Canada 1999.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Napoles-Springer AM, Santoyo-Olsson J, O’Brien H, Stewart AL. Using cognitive interviews to develop surveys in diverse populations. Med Care. 2006;44(11 Suppl 3):S21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Angel RJ. Narrative and the fundamental limitations of quantification in crosscultural research. Med Care. 2006;44(11 Suppl 3):S31–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van de Vijver FJR, Leung K. Methods and data analysis of comparative research. In: Berry J, Poortinga Y, Pandey J, editors. Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, Volume 1: theory and method. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon; 1997.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Carrico AW, Chesney MA, Johnson MO, Morin SF, Neilands TB, Remien RH, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for HIV-positive persons: an investigation of treatment effects on psychosocial adjustment. AIDS Behav. 2009;13:555–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Safren SA, O’Cleirigh C, Tan JY, Raminani SR, Reilly LC, Otto MW, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-infected individuals. Health Psychol. 2009;28(1):1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Simoni JM, Frick PA, Huang B. A longitudinal evaluation of a social support model of medication adherence among HIV-positive men and women on antiretroviral therapy. Health Psychol. 2006;25(1):74–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    West SG, Duan N, Pequegnat W, Gaist P, Des Jarlais DC, Holtgrave D, et al. Alternatives to the randomized controlled trial. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(8):1359–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lavori PW, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Alpert J, Fava M, Kupfer DJ, et al. Strengthening clinical effectiveness trials: equipoise-stratified randomization. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50(10):792–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Collins LM, Murphy SA, Bierman KL. A conceptual framework for adaptive preventive interventions. Prev Sci. 2004;5(3):185–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rubin DB. The design versus the analysis of observational studies for causal effects: parallels with the design of randomized trials. Stat Med. 2007;26:20–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, et al. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic Instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45(12):1069–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Orlando M, Burnam MA, Beckman R, Morton SC, London AS, Bing EG, et al. Re-estimating the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a nationally representative sample of persons receiving care for HIV: results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2002;11(2):75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(Suppl 20):22–33; quiz 4-57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Myer L, Smit J, Roux LL, Parker S, Stein DJ, Seedat S. Common mental disorders among HIV-infected individuals in South Africa: prevalence, predictors, and validation of brief psychiatric rating scales. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(2):147–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Adewuya AO, Afolabi MO, Ola BA, Ogundele OA, Ajibare AO, Oladipo BF, et al. Relationship between depression and quality of life in persons with HIV infection in Nigeria. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2008;38(1):43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version (SCID-CV). Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.; 1996.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gibbie T, Mijch A, Ellen S, Hoy J, Hutchison C, Wright E, et al. Depression and neurocognitive performance in individuals with HIV/AIDS: 2-year follow-up. HIV Med. 2006;7(2):112–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stewart RC, Bunn J, Vokhiwa M, Umar E, Kauye F, Fitzgerald M, et al. Common mental disorder and associated factors amongst women with young infants in rural Malawi. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010;45(5):551–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mello VA, Malbergier A. Depression in women infected with HIV. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2006;28(1):10–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lewis G, Pelosi AJ, Araya R, Dunn G. Measuring psychiatric disorder in the community: a standardized assessment for use by lay interviewers. Psychol Med. 1992;22(2):465–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tostes MA, Chalub M, Botega NJ. The quality of life of HIV-infected women is associated with psychiatric morbidity. AIDS Care. 2004;16(2):177–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, Linzer M, deGruy FV III, Hahn SR, et al. Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA. 1994;272(22):1749–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rogers G, Curry M, Oddy J, Pratt N, Beilby J, Wilkinson D. Depressive disorders and unprotected casual anal sex among Australian homosexually active men in primary care. HIV Med. 2003;4(3):271–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. JAMA. 1999;282(18):1737–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Crane PK, Gibbons LE, Willig JH, Mugavero MJ, Lawrence ST, Schumacher JE, et al. Measuring depression levels in HIV-infected patients as part of routine clinical care using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). AIDS Care. 2010;22(7):874–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rao D, Feldman B, Fredericksen R, Simoni J, Crane P, Kitahata M, et al. HIV-related stigma and depressive symptoms: underlying mechanisms impacting medication adherence among people with HIV. International Conference on HIV Treatment Adherence; May 23–25, 2010; Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mao L, Kidd MR, Rogers G, Andrews G, Newman CE, Booth A, et al. Social factors associated with Major Depressive Disorder in homosexually active, gay men attending general practices in urban Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2009;33(1):83–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care. 2003;41(11):1284–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Broadhead WE, Leon AC, Weissman MM, Barrett JE, Blacklow RS, Gilbert TT, et al. Development and validation of the SDDS-PC screen for multiple mental disorders in primary care. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4(3):211–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1983;67(6):361–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sahay S, Phadke M, Brahme R, Paralikar V, Joshi V, Sane S, et al. Correlates of anxiety and depression among HIV test-seekers at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing facility in Pune, India. Qual Life Res. 2007;16(1):41–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hasanah CI, Zaliha AR, Mahiran M. Factors influencing the quality of life in patients with HIV in Malaysia. Qual Life Res. 26.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jayathunge MP, Bowanwatanuwong C, Maek AnW, Pitisuttithum BP. Psychosocial burden of abnormal pap smears among HIV-infected women at Chon Buri hospital, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41(1):224–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Au A, Chan I, Li P, Chung R, Po LM, Yu P. Stress and health-related quality of life among HIV-infected persons in Hong Kong. AIDS Behav. 2004;8(2):119–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Beck AT. Beck depression inventory-II: Harcourt Brace and Company: The Psychological Corporation; 1996.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Park J, Nachman S. The link between religion and HAART adherence in pediatric HIV patients. AIDS Care. 2010;15:1–6.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Briongos Figuero LS, Bachiller Luque P, Palacios Martin T, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Eiros Bouza JM. Assessment of factors influencing health-related quality of life in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med. 17.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kagee A, Martin L. Symptoms of depression and anxiety among a sample of South African patients living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2010;22(2):159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Au A, Cheng C, Chan I, Leung P, Li P, Heaton RK. Subjective memory complaints, mood, and memory deficits among HIV/AIDS patients in Hong Kong. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2008;30(3):338–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kolaric B, Tesic V, Ivankovic D, Begovac J. Prevalence of moderate and severe depression among Croatian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Coll Antropol. 2006;30(Suppl 2):85–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Olley BO. Improving well-being through psycho-education among voluntary counseling and testing seekers in Nigeria: a controlled outcome study. AIDS Care. 2006;18(8):1025–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pechansky F, von Diemen L, Kessler F, Hirakata V, Metzger D, Woody GE. Preliminary estimates of human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence among cocaine abusers of Porto Alegre, Brazil. J Urban Health. 2003;80(1):115–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rush AJ, Gullion CM, Basco MR, Jarrett RB, Trivedi MH. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): psychometric properties. Psychol Med. 1996;26(3):477–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rush A, Trivedi M, Ibrahim H, Carmody T, Arnow B, Klein D, et al. The 16-item quick inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS), clinician rating (QIDS-C), and self-report (QIDS-SR): a psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(5):573–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zimmerman M, Coryell W. The Inventory to Diagnose Depression (IDD): a self-report scale to diagnose major depressive disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987;55(1):55–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Komiti A, Judd F, Grech P, Mijch A, Hoy J, Williams B, et al. Depression in people living with HIV/AIDS attending primary care and outpatient clinics. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2003;37(1):70–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Olsen LR, Jensen DV, Noerholm V, Martiny K, Bech P. The internal and external validity of the Major Depression Inventory in measuring severity of depressive states. Psychol Med. 2003;33(2):351–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1:385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Koblin B, Chesney M, Coates T. Effects of a behavioural intervention to reduce acquisition of HIV infection among men who have sex with men: the EXPLORE randomised controlled study. Lancet. 2004;364(9428):41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Safren SA, Thomas BE, Mimiaga MJ, Chandrasekaran V, Menon S, Swaminathan S, et al. Depressive symptoms and human immunodeficiency virus risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Chennai, India. Psychol Health Med. 2009;14(6):705–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Farley J, Miller E, Zamani A, Tepper V, Morris C, Oyegunle M, et al. Screening for hazardous alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among HIV-infected patients in Nigeria: prevalence, predictors, and association with adherence. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic Ill). 2010;9(4):218–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nakasujja N, Skolasky RL, Musisi S, Allebeck P, Robertson K, Ronald A, et al. Depression symptoms and cognitive function among individuals with advanced HIV infection initiating HAART in Uganda. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Cohen MH, Fabri M, Cai X, Shi Q, Hoover DR, Binagwaho A, et al. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in HIV-infected and at-risk Rwandan women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18(11):1783–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fincham D, Smit J, Carey P, Stein DJ, Seedat S. The relationship between behavioural inhibition, anxiety disorders, depression and CD4 counts in HIV-positive adults: a cross-sectional controlled study. AIDS Care. 2008;20(10):1279–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hong Y, Li X, Fang X, Zhao R. Depressive symptoms and condom use with clients among female sex workers in China. Sex Health. 2007;4(2):99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Poupard M, Ngom Gueye NF, Thiam D, Ndiaye B, Girard PM, Delaporte E, et al. Quality of life and depression among HIV-infected patients receiving efavirenz- or protease inhibitor-based therapy in Senegal. HIV Med. 2007;8(2):92–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Watanabe M, Nishimura K, Inoue T, Kimura S, Oka S. A discriminative study of health-related quality of life assessment in HIV-1-infected persons living in Japan using the Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire for persons with HIV/AIDS. Int J STD AIDS. 2004;15(2):107–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Eller LS, Mahat G. Psychological factors in Nepali former commercial sex workers with HIV. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2003;35(1):53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kohout FJ, Berkman LF, Evans DA, Cornoni-Huntley J. Two shorter forms of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) depression symptoms index. J Aging Health. 1993;5(2):179–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Santor DA, Coyen JC. Shortening the CES-D to improve its ability to detect cases of depression. Psychol Assess. 1997;9(3):233–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Turvey CL, Wallace RB, Herzog R. A revised CES-D measure of depressive symptoms and a DSM-based measure of major depressive episodes in the elderly. Int Psychogeriatr. 1999;11(2):139–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL). A measure of primary symptom dimensions. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry. 1974;7:79–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Joseph JG, Caumartin SM, Tal M, Kirscht JP, Kessler RC, Ostrow DG, et al. Psychological functioning in a cohort of gay men at risk for AIDS. A three-year descriptive study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1990;178(10):607–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bolton P, Wilk CM, Ndogoni L. Assessment of depression prevalence in rural Uganda using symptom and function criteria. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2004;39(6):442–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kaaya SF, Fawzi MC, Mbwambo JK, Lee B, Msamanga GI, Fawzi W. Validity of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 amongst HIV-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;106(1):9–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Covi L. SCL-90: an outpatient psychiatric rating scale—preliminary report. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1973;9(1):13–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Derogatis L. SCL-90-R: administration, scoring and procedures manual II for the revised version. Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research; 1992.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hawkins T, Geist C, Young B, Giblin A, Mercier RC, Thornton K, et al. Comparison of neuropsychiatric side effects in an observational cohort of efavirenz- and protease inhibitor-treated patients. HIV Clin Trials. 2005;6(4):187–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Jin C, Zhao G, Zhang F, Feng L, Wu N. The psychological status of HIV-positive people and their psychosocial experiences in eastern China. HIV Med. 2010;11(4):253–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Alciati A, Starace F, Scaramelli B, Campaniello M, Adriani B, Mellado C, et al. Has there been a decrease in the prevalence of mood disorders in HIV-seropositive individuals since the introduction of combination therapy? Eur Psychiatry. 2001;16(8):491–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Goldberg D. The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. London: Oxford University Press; 1972.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Bernatsky S, Souza R, de Jong K. Mental health in HIV-positive pregnant women: results from Angola. AIDS Care. 2007;19(5):674–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hamilton M. Comparative value of rating scales. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1976;3(1 Suppl 1):58–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi E, Mroczek DK, Normand SL, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med. 2002;32(6):959–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Spies G, Kader K, Kidd M, Smit J, Myer L, Stein DJ, et al. Validity of the K-10 in detecting DSM-IV-defined depression and anxiety disorders among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Care. 2009;21(9):1163–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Deribew A, Tesfaye M, Hailmichael Y, Negussu N, Daba S, Wogi A, et al. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: its impact on quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Montgomery SA, Asberg M. A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry. 1979;134:382–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Carvalhal AS, de Abreu PB, Spode A, Correa J, Kapczinski F. An open trial of reboxetine in HIV-seropositive outpatients with major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(4):421–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sebit MB, Chandiwana SK, Latif AS, Gomo E, Acuda SW, Makoni F, et al. Neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV disease progression: impact of traditional herbs on adult patients in Zimbabwe. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26(3):451–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane M. Simoni
    • 1
  • Steven A. Safren
    • 2
  • Lisa E. Manhart
    • 3
  • Karen Lyda
    • 4
  • Cynthia I. Grossman
    • 5
  • Deepa Rao
    • 6
  • Matthew J. Mimiaga
    • 7
  • Frank Y. Wong
    • 8
  • Sheryl L. Catz
    • 9
  • Michael B. Blank
    • 10
  • Ralph DiClemente
    • 8
  • Ira B. Wilson
    • 11
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyUW Center for AIDS and STDSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of Infectious Disease, School of MedicineUniversity of Colorado Denver, University of Colorado HospitalAuroraUSA
  5. 5.Center for Mental Health Research on AIDSNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA
  6. 6.Department of Global HealthUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  7. 7.Fenway Community HealthBostonUSA
  8. 8.Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  9. 9.Group Health Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  10. 10.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  11. 11.Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy StudiesTufts Medical CenterBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations