Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 663–673 | Cite as

HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Transgenders in Indonesia

  • Ciptasari Prabawanti
  • Liesbeth Bollen
  • Rini Palupy
  • Guy Morineau
  • Philippe Girault
  • Dyah Erti Mustikawati
  • Nurholis Majid
  • Nurhayati
  • Erlian Rista Aditya
  • Atiek Sulistyarni Anartati
  • Robert Magnani
Original Paper

Abstract

Behavioral surveillance was undertaken among 1,150 male-to-female transgenders (waria) in Java, Indonesia, 2007; samples were collected for HIV and STI testing (n = 748). Almost all waria had ever sold sex (median duration 10 years). Prevalence of HIV was 24.4%, syphilis 26.8% and rectal gonorrhea and/or chlamydia 47.0%. Syphilis and rectal STIs were associated with HIV infection. Consistent condom use during receptive anal sex with clients was reported by 35.9% waria and was higher among those who visited an STI clinic and who knew their HIV status. Efforts should continue to strengthen behavior change and STI care in future HIV prevention programs.

Keywords

HIV STI Sexual risk behavior Transgenders Indonesia 

References

  1. 1.
    De Santis JP. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature. J Ass Nurses AIDS Care. 2009;20(5):362–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clements-Nolle K, Guzam R, Harris SG. Sex trade in a male-to-female transgender population: psychosocial correlates of inconsistent condom use. Sexual Health. 2008;5:49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pisani E, Girault P, Gultom M, et al. HIV, syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80(6):536–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    National AIDS Commission. Kegiatan estimasi populasi dewasa rawan terinfeksi HIV, tahun 2006 (in Bahasa Indonesia). Jakarta: National AIDS Commission; 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Magnani R, Riono P, Nurhayati, et al. Sexual risk behaviors, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Indonesia. Sex Transm Inf. E-publication.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morineau G, Nugrahini N, Riono P, et al. Sexual risk taking, STI and HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in six Indonesian cities. AIDS Behav. doi: 10.1007/s10461-009-9590-6.
  7. 7.
    Operario D, Soma T, Underhill K. Sex work and HIV status among transgender women: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48(1):97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dallabetta G, Neilsen G. Efforts to control sexually transmitted infectionis as a means to limit HIV transmission: what is the evidence? Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2005;7:79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Singh AE, Romanowski B. Syphilis: review with emphasis on clinical, epidemiologic, and some biologic features. Clin Microb Review. 1999;12(2):187–209.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sutrisna A, Soebjakto O, Wignall FS, et al. Increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from East Java and Papua, Indonesia, in 2004 - implications for treatment. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17(12):810–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jin F, Prestage GP, Imrie J, et al. Anal sexually transmitted infections and risk of HIV infection in homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53(1):144–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bollen LJM, Anartati AS, Morineau G, et al. Addressing the high prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia among female sex workers in Indonesia: results of an enhanced, comprehensive intervention. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:61–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kayembe PK, Mapatano MA, Busangu AF, et al. Determinants of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for interventions. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84(3):202–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cremin I, Nyamukapa C, Sherr L, Hallett TB. Patterns of self-reported behaviour change associated with receiving voluntary counselling and testing in a longitudinal study from Manicaland, Zimbabwe. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(3):708–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ciptasari Prabawanti
    • 1
  • Liesbeth Bollen
    • 1
  • Rini Palupy
    • 1
  • Guy Morineau
    • 2
  • Philippe Girault
    • 2
  • Dyah Erti Mustikawati
    • 3
  • Nurholis Majid
    • 1
  • Nurhayati
    • 1
  • Erlian Rista Aditya
    • 1
  • Atiek Sulistyarni Anartati
    • 1
  • Robert Magnani
    • 1
  1. 1.Family Health International, Country Office, Menara SalembaJakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Family Health International, Regional OfficeBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Sub-Directorate for HIV/AIDS & STIs, Ministry of Health, Republic of IndonesiaJakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations