AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 683–686 | Cite as

Male to Female and Female to Male Transgender Persons have Different Sexual Risk Behaviors Yet Similar Rates of STDs and HIV

  • Sally C. Stephens
  • Kyle T. Bernstein
  • Susan S. Philip
Original Paper


The epidemiology of STDs and HIV among male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender persons is limited, which makes prevention for transgender populations challenging. We examined data collected at visits for all self-identified MTF and FTM patients at the municipal STD clinic in San Francisco from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009. We compared demographic and socio-behavioral characteristics, as well as STD and HIV positivity and history of previous STD. Despite demographic and behavioral risk differences, there were no differences in STD positivity or HIV prevalence between MTF and FTM. A more complete understanding of the prevention needs for transgender persons is needed.


Transgender Male-to-female Female-to-male Sexually transmitted diseases Epidemiology 



This work was funded in part by the Comprehensive STD Prevention Projects (1H25PS001354-01) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally C. Stephens
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kyle T. Bernstein
    • 1
  • Susan S. Philip
    • 1
  1. 1.STD Prevention and Control Services, San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.CDC/CSTE Applied Epidemiology FellowshipAtlantaUSA

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