Advertisement

AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 683–686 | Cite as

Male to Female and Female to Male Transgender Persons have Different Sexual Risk Behaviors Yet Similar Rates of STDs and HIV

  • Sally C. Stephens
  • Kyle T. Bernstein
  • Susan S. Philip
Original Paper

Abstract

The epidemiology of STDs and HIV among male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) transgender persons is limited, which makes prevention for transgender populations challenging. We examined data collected at visits for all self-identified MTF and FTM patients at the municipal STD clinic in San Francisco from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009. We compared demographic and socio-behavioral characteristics, as well as STD and HIV positivity and history of previous STD. Despite demographic and behavioral risk differences, there were no differences in STD positivity or HIV prevalence between MTF and FTM. A more complete understanding of the prevention needs for transgender persons is needed.

Keywords

Transgender Male-to-female Female-to-male Sexually transmitted diseases Epidemiology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded in part by the Comprehensive STD Prevention Projects (1H25PS001354-01) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

References

  1. 1.
    Herbst JH, Jacobs ED, Finlayson TJ, McKleroy VS, Neumann MS, Crepaz N. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(1):1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clements-Nolle K, Marx R, Guzman R, Katz M. HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):915–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Santis JP. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2009;20(5):362–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sausa LA, Keatley J, Operario D. Perceived risks and benefits of sex work among transgender women of color in San Francisco. Arch Sex Behav. 2007;36(6):768–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schulden JD, Song B, Barros A, Mares-DelGrasso A, Martin CW, Ramirez R, et al. Rapid HIV testing in transgender communities by community-based organizations in three cities. Public Health Rep. 2008;123(Suppl 3):101–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kenagy GP, Hsieh CM. The risk less known: female-to-male transgender persons’ vulnerability to HIV infection. AIDS Care. 2005;17(2):195–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McFarland W. Proposed 2006 HIV consensus estimates, San Francisco. 2006. http://www.sfhiv.org/files/full_council/2006/04-13/Consensus%202006%200413%20W%20McFarland.ppt. Accessed 18 Mar 2010.
  8. 8.
    HIV Epidemiology Section. 2008 HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Annual Report. San Francisco: Department of Public Health, July 2009 Contract No.: Document Number.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nemoto T, Sausa LA, Operario D, Keatley J. Need for HIV/AIDS education and intervention for MTF transgenders: responding to the challenge. J Homosex. 2006;51(1):183–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally C. Stephens
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kyle T. Bernstein
    • 1
  • Susan S. Philip
    • 1
  1. 1.STD Prevention and Control Services, San Francisco Department of Public HealthSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.CDC/CSTE Applied Epidemiology FellowshipAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations