AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 725–733 | Cite as

Client Characteristics and HIV Risk Associated with Repeat HIV Testing Among Women in Ethiopia

  • Heather Bradley
  • Amy Tsui
  • Aklilu Kidanu
  • Duff Gillespie
Original Paper


In Ethiopia, the number of HIV tests administered doubled from 2007 to 2008. However, very little is known about the number of clients testing repeatedly in one year, or their motivations for doing so. We examine repeat HIV testing among 2,027 Ethiopian women attending eight VCT facilities in 2008. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between repeat HIV testing and demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics, as well as HIV status. Nearly 40% of clients had tested previously for HIV. Women with high sexual risk are nearly four times more likely than those with no sexual risk to have tested previously, but HIV prevalence was lower among repeat testers (6.5%) than first-time testers (8.5%). Moderate perceived vulnerability, or feeling powerless to prevent HIV infection, is associated with a 50% increased likelihood of being a repeat tester. High perceived behavioral risk is associated with a 40% reduction in the likelihood a woman is testing for at least the second time. Costs associated with repeat testing should be balanced against identification of new HIV cases and prevention benefits.


Voluntary HIV counseling and testing Repeat testing Ethiopia Perceived risk 



The authors gratefully acknowledge support for conducting this research from The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Bradley
    • 1
  • Amy Tsui
    • 1
  • Aklilu Kidanu
    • 2
  • Duff Gillespie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Population, Family and Reproductive HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Miz-Hasab Research CenterAddis AbabaEthiopia

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