AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1237–1251 | Cite as

Efficacy of HIV Prevention Interventions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations, 1995–2008: A Meta-Analysis

  • Tania B. Huedo-MedinaEmail author
  • Marcy H. Boynton
  • Michelle R. Warren
  • Jessica M. LaCroix
  • Michael P. Carey
  • Blair T. Johnson
Original Paper


This meta-analysis synthesized 37 HIV prevention interventions (from 28 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.40) and condom use (d = 0.25) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed social-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations’ human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least 3 h of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed.


Latin America Caribbean countries Behavioral intervention HIV prevention Poverty Condom use 



We thank study authors who made their data available for this study and Jennifer Ortiz, Natalie D. Smoak, and Amanda Northcutt who assisted in coding the meta-analyses and preparing the database of references. The work also benefited from Marijn de Bruin’s comments. This research was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R01-MH58563 to B. T. Johnson.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors indicate no conflicts of interest.


Asterisks indicate reports with studies included in the meta-analysis

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tania B. Huedo-Medina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcy H. Boynton
    • 2
  • Michelle R. Warren
    • 1
  • Jessica M. LaCroix
    • 1
  • Michael P. Carey
    • 3
  • Blair T. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Health, Intervention, and PreventionUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Transdisciplinary Prevention Research CenterDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Center for Health and BehaviorSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

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