AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 976–991 | Cite as

HIV Prevention Among African American Youth: How Well Have Evidence-Based Interventions Addressed Key Theoretical Constructs?

  • Lisa M. Romero
  • Jennifer S. Galbraith
  • Lyndsey Wilson-Williams
  • Kari M. Gloppen
Original Paper

Abstract

Certain constructs are demonstrated in the research literature to be related to HIV risk behaviors among African American adolescents. This study examines how well these constructs are addressed in evidence-based interventions (EBIs) developed for this population. A literature review on variables for sexual risk behaviors among African American adolescents was undertaken. Simultaneously, a review was conducted of the contents of HIV-prevention EBIs. To facilitate comparison, findings from both were organized into constructs from prominent behavior change theories. Analysis showed that environmental conditions and perceived norms were frequently associated with sexual risk behaviors in the literature, while EBIs devoted considerable time to knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy. Findings imply that (a) EBIs might be complemented with activities that focus on important constructs identified in the literature and (b) researchers should better assess the relationship between skill development and HIV risk behaviors. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

Keywords

Adolescents African American HIV prevention Sexual risk behaviors Interventions 

References

  1. 1.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States 2009. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(SS-5):20–3.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004;36(1):6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance, 2008. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, et al. Births: final data for 2006. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2009.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hawkins JD. Academic performance and school success: sources and consequences. In: Weissberg RP, Gullotta TP, Hampton RL, Ryan BA, Adams GR, editors. Healthy children 2010: enhancing children’s wellness. Vol 8. Issues in children’s and families’ lives ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual risk behaviors and academic achievement. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/Healthyyouth/health_and_academics/index.htm. Accessed 5 January 2008.
  7. 7.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS surveillance in adolescents and young adults (through 2007). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/adolescents/index.htm. Accessed 3 May 2010.
  8. 8.
    Forhan SE, Gottlieb SL, Sternberg MR, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female adolescents aged 14 to 19 in the United States. Pediatrics. November 23, 2009 2009:peds.2009-0674.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirby D, Laris B, Rolleri L. Sex and HIV education programs for youth: their impact and important characteristics. Washington, DC: Family Health International; 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lyles C, Kay L, Crepaz N, et al. Best-evidence interventions: findings from a systematic review of HIV behavioral interventions for US populations at high risk, 2000–2004. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):133–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/research/prs/index.htm. Accessed 12 May 2009.
  12. 12.
    AED Center on AIDS and Community Health. Diffusion of effective behavioral interventions. Available at: http://www.effectiveinterventions.org/. Accessed 12 May 2009.
  13. 13.
    NIMH Office of AIDS Programs. Factors influencing behavior and behavior change: Final Report of the Theorists Workshop. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1991.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lyles CM, Crepaz N, Herbst JH, et al. Evidence-based HIV behavioral prevention from the perspective of CDC’s HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Team. AIDS Educ Prev. 2006;18(Suppl A):21–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sogolow ED, Kay LS, Doll LS, et al. Strengthening HIV prevention: application of a research-to-practice framework. AIDS Educ Prev. 2000;12(Suppl A):21–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tiers of evidence: a framework for classifying HIV behavioral interventions. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/research/prs/tiers-of-evidence.htm. Accessed 30 June 2007.
  17. 17.
    Lyles CM, Kay LS, Crepaz N, et al. Best-evidence interventions: findings from a systematic review of HIV behavioral interventions for US populations at high risk, 2000–2004. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):133–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    St. Lawrence JS, Brasfield TL, Jefferson KW, et al. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce African American adolescents’ risk for HIV infection. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995;63:221–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jemmott JB III, Jemmott LS, Fong GT. Reductions in HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among black male adolescents: effects of an AIDS prevention intervention. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:372–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stanton B, Li X, Ricardo I, et al. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of an AIDS prevention program for low-income African-American youths. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1996;150:363–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stanton B, Cole M, Galbraith J, et al. A randomized trial of a parent intervention: parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions and knowledge. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158:947–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, Harrington KF, et al. Efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:171–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rotheram-Borus M, Song J, Gwadz M, et al. Reductions in HIV risk among runaway youth. Prev Sci. 2003;4:173–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jemmott JB III, Jemmott LS, Fong G. Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African-American adolescents: a randomized control trial. JAMA. 1998;279:1529–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clark L, Miller K, Nagy S, et al. Adult identity mentoring: reducing sexual risk for African-American seventh grade students. J Adolesc Health. 2005; 37:337.e331–337.e310.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marcus H, Nurius P. Possible selves. Am Psychol. 1986;41(9):954–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hallfors DD, Waller MW, Bauer D, et al. Which comes first in adolescence—sex and drugs or depression? Am J Prev Med. 2005;29(3):163–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Millstein SG, Irwin CEJ, Adler NE, et al. Health-risk behaviors and health concerns among young adolescents. Pediatrics. 1992;89:422–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Donovan J, Jessor R, Costa F. Syndrome of problem behavior in adolescence: a replication. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;28:762–5.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kandel D. Issues of sequencing of adolescent drug use and other problem behaviors. Perspect Adol Drug Use. 1989;3:55–76.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Block J, Block JH, Keyes S. Longitudinally foretelling drug usage in adolescence: early childhood personality and environmental precursors. Child Dev. 1988;59:336–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jessor R, Chase JA, Donovan JE. Psychosocial correlates of marijuana use and problem drinking in a national sample of adolescents. Am J Public Health. 1980;70:604–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zabin LS. The association between smoking and sexual behavior among teens in US contraceptive clinics. Am J Public Health. 1984;74:261–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Irwin CE, Millstein SC. Biopsychosocial correlates of risk-taking behaviors during adolescence: can the physician intervene? J Adolesc Health Care. 1986;7:825–965.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    DiClemente R. Psychosocial determinants of condom use among adolescents. In: DiClemente R, editor. Adolescents and AIDS: a generation in Jeopardy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1992.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buhi ER, Goodson P. Predictors of adolescent sexual behavior and intention: a theory-guided systematic review. J Adolesc Health. 2007;40:4–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    DiClemente RJ, Salazar LF, Crosby RA. A review of STD/HIV preventive interventions for adolescents: sustaining effects using an ecological approach. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(8):888–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Galbraith JS, Stanton B, Boekeloo B, et al. Exploring implementation and fidelity of evidence-based behavioral interventions for HIV prevention: lessons learned from the Focus on Kids diffusion case study. Health Educ Behav. 2009;36(3):532–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bunnell RE, Dahlberg L, Rolfs R, et al. High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in urban adolescent females despite moderate risk behaviors. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:1624–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Correlates of unprotected vaginal sex among African American female adolescents: importance of relationship dynamics. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(9):893–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DiIorio C, Dudley WN, Soet JE, et al. Sexual possibility situations and sexual behaviors among young adolescents: the moderating role of protective factors. J Adolesc Health. 2004;35(6):528.e511–528.e520.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams KM, Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, et al. Prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis among sexually active African-American adolescent females. Prev Med. 2002;35(6):593–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Harrington K, et al. Exposure to x-rated movies and adolescents’ sexual and contraceptive-related attitudes and behaviors. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):1116–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Bernhardt JM, et al. A prospective study of exposure to rap music videos and African American female adolescents’ health. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(3):437–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sionean C, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Socioeconomic status and self-reported Gonorrhea among African American female adolescents. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(4):236–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Harper GW, Robinson WL. Pathways to risk among inner-city African-American adolescent females: the influence of gang membership. Am J Community Psychol. 1999;27(3):383–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ramirez-Valles J, Zimmerman MA, Newcomb MD. Sexual risk behavior among youth: modeling the influence of prosocial activities and socioeconomic factors. J Health Soc Behav. 1998;39(3):237–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lanctot N, Smith CA. Sexual activity, pregnancy, and deviance in a representative urban sample of African American girls. J Youth Adolesc. 2001;30(3):349–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ramirez-Valles J, Zimmerman MA, Juarez L. Gender differences of neighborhood and social control processes: a study of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving, urban, African American youth. Youth Soc. 2002;33(3):418–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Voisin DR. Victims of community violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American adolescent males. J HIV AIDS Prev Child Youth. 2003;5(3/4):87–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Milhausen RR, Crosby R, Yarber WL, et al. Rural and nonrural African American high school students and STD/HIV sexual-risk behaviors. Am J Health Behav. 2003;27(4):373–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aronowitz T, Morrison-Beedy D. Resilience to risk-taking behaviors in impoverished African American girls: the role of mother-daughter connectedness. Res Nurs Health. 2004;27(1):29–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dittus PJ, Jaccard J, Gordon VV. Direct and nondirect communication of maternal beliefs to adolescents: adolescent motivations for premarital sexual activity. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1999;29(9):1927–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Moore MR, Chase-Lansdale PL. Sexual intercourse and pregnancy among African American girls in high-poverty neighborhoods: the role of family and perceived community environment. J Marriage Fam Couns. 2001;63(4):1146–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jaccard J, Dittus PJ, Gordon VV. Maternal correlates of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior. Fam Plann Perspect. 1996;28(4):159–65, 185.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. HIV/STD prevention benefits of living in supportive families: a prospective analysis of high risk African-American female teens. Am J Health Promot. 2002;16(3):142–145, ii.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. HIV/STD-protective benefits of living with mothers in perceived supportive families: a study of high-risk African American female teens. Prev Med. 2001;33:175–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Doljanac RF, Zimmerman MA. Psychosocial factors and high-risk sexual behavior: race differences among urban adolescents. J Behav Med. 1998;21(5):451–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    McBride CK, Paikoff RL, Holmbeck GN. Individual and familial influences on the onset of sexual intercourse among urban African American adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71(1):159–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Felton GM, Bartoces M. Predictors of initiation of early sex in black and white adolescent females. Public Health Nurs. 2002;19(1):59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Raine TR, Jenkins R, Aarons SJ, et al. Sociodemographic correlates of virginity in seventh-grade black and Latino students. J Adolesc Health. 1999;24(5):304–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Romer D, Stanton B, Galbraith J, et al. Parental influence on adolescent sexual behavior in high-poverty settings. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:1055–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, Crosby R, et al. Parent-adolescent communication and sexual risk behaviors among African American adolescent females. J Pediatr. 2001;139(3):407–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stanton B, Li X, Pack R, et al. Longitudinal influence of perceptions of peer and parental factors on African American adolescent risk involvement. J Urban Health. 2002;79(4):536–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Whitaker DJ, Miller KS. Parent-adolescent discussions about sex and condoms: impact on peer influences of sexual risk behavior. J Adolesc Res. 2000;15(2):251–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Whitaker DJ, Miller KS, May DC, et al. Teenage partners’ communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions. Fam Plann Perspect. 1999;31(3):117–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    DiIorio C, Kelley M, Hockenberry-Eaton M. Communication about sexual issues: mothers, fathers, and friends. J Adolesc Health. 1999;24(3):181–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miller KS, Levin ML, Whitaker DJ, et al. Patterns of condom use among adolescents: the impact of mother-adolescent communication. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(10):1542–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Li X, Feigelman S, Stanton B. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behaviors among urban low-income African-American children and adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2000;27(1):43–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Infrequent parental monitoring predicts sexually transmitted infections among low-income African American female adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(2):169–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, Crosby RA, et al. Parental monitoring: association with adolescents’ risk behaviors. Pediatrics. 2001;107(6):1363–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Li X, Stanton B, Feigelman S. Impact of perceived parental monitoring on adolescent risk behavior over 4 years. J Adolesc Health. 2000;27(1):49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mandara J, Murray CB, Bangi AK. Predictors of African American adolescent sexual activity: an ecological framework. J Black Psychol. 2003;29(3):337–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stanton BF, Li X, Galbraith J, et al. Parental underestimates of adolescent risk behavior: a randomized, controlled trial of a parental monitoring intervention. J Adolesc Health. 2000;26:18–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bachanas PJ, Morris MK, Lewis-Gess JK, et al. Predictors of risky sexual behavior in African American adolescent girls: implications for prevention interventions. J Pediatr Psychol. 2002;27(6):519–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Romer D, Stanton BF. Feelings about risk and the epidemic diffusion of adolescent sexual behavior. Prev Sci. 2003;4(1):39–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kinsman SB, Romer D, Furstenberg FF, et al. Early sexual initiation: the role of peer norms. Pediatrics. 1998;102:1185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wills TA, Murry VM, Brody GH, et al. Ethnic pride and self-control related to protective and risk factors: test of the theoretical model for the Strong African American Families Program. Health Psyc. 2007;26(1):50–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Santelli JS, Kaiser J, Hirsch L, et al. Initiation of sexual intercourse among middle school adolescents: the influence of psychosocial factors. J Adolesc Health. 2004;34(3):200–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Identification of strategies for promoting condom use: a prospective analysis of high-risk African American female teens. Prev Sci. 2003;4(4):263–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    DiIorio C, Dudley WN, Kelly M, et al. Social cognitive correlates of sexual experience and condom use among 13- through 15-year-old adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2001;29(3):208–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Condom use and correlates of African American adolescent females’ infrequent communication with sex partners about preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Health Educ Behav. 2002;29(2):219–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Crosby R, et al. Gang involvement and the health of African American female adolescents. Pediatrics. 2002;110(5):e57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, McCree DH, et al. Dating violence and the sexual health of black adolescent females. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):e72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Randolph SM, Banks DH. Making a way out of no way: the promise of Africentric approaches to HIV prevention. J Black Psychol. 1993;19:204–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nobles W, Goddard L, Gilbert D. The African-centered behavior change model: The needed paradigm shift in HIV prevention for African American women. National HIV Prevention Conference. Atlanta, 2007.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fullilove RE, Green L, Fullilove M. The Family to Family program: a structural intervention with implications for the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other community epidemics. AIDS. 2000;14(Suppl 1):S63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    O’Donnell L, Stueve A, O’Donnell C, et al. Long-term reductions in sexual initiation and sexual activity among urban middle schoolers in the reach for health service learning program. J Adolesc Health. 2002;31(1):93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bayne Smith M. Teen incentives program: evaluation of a health promotion model for adolescent pregnancy prevention. J Health Educ. 1994;25(1):24–9.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection: the role of the pediatrician in prevention and intervention. Pediatrics. 2001;107:188–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(RR-14):1–17.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STD treatment guidelines: Special populations–adolescents. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2006/specialpops.htm#specialpops2. Accessed 8 July 2008.
  93. 93.
    Stratford DM, Williams K, Courtenay-Quirk C, et al. Addressing poverty as a risk for disease: recommendations from CDC’s consultation on microenterprise as HIV prevention. Public Health Rep. 2008;123:11.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Joint Committee on National Health Education Standards. National health education standards: achieving excellence. 2nd ed. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2007.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kirby D, Lepore G, Ryan J. Sexual risk and protective factors: factors affecting teen sexual behavior, pregnancy, childbearing and sexually transmitted disease: which are important? Which can you change? Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy; 2005.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Crosby R, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Correct condom application among African-American adolescent females: the relationship to perceived self-efficacy and the association to confirmed STDs. J Adolesc Health. 2001;29(3):194–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Deveaux L, Stanton B, Lunn S, et al. Reduction in human immunodeficiency virus risk among youth in developing countries. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(12):1130–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bearinger LH, Sieving RE, Ferguson J, et al. Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: patterns, prevention, and potential. Lancet. 2007;369(9568):1220–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Coates T, Richter L, Caceres C. Behavioural strategies to reduce HIV transmission: how to make them work better. Lancet. 2008;372:669–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Blankenship K, Friedman S, Dworkin S, et al. Structural interventions: concepts, challenges and opportunities for research. J Urban Health. 2006;83(1):59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gupta GR, Parkhurst JR, Ogden JA, et al. Structural approaches to HIV prevention. Lancet. 2008;372:764–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    O’Leary A, Jemmott LS, Jernmott JB. Mediation analysis of an effective sexual risk-reduction intervention for women: the importance of self-efficacy. Health Psychol. 2008;27(2):S180–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    McKinley R, Strand J, Ward L, et al. Checklists for assessment and certification of clinical procedural skills omit essential competencies: a systematic review. Med Educ. 2008;42(4):338–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pick S, Givaudan M, Sirkin J, et al. Communication as a protective factor: evaluation of a life skills HIV/AIDS prevention program for Mexican elementary-school students. AIDS Educ Prev. 2007;19(5):408–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jemmott JB III, Jemmott LS. Strategies to reduce the risk of HIV infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and pregnancy among African American adolescents. In: Resnick RJ, Rozensky RH, editors. Health psychology through the life span: practice and research opportunities. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1996. p. 395–422.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rotheram-Borus M, Koopman S, Haignere C, et al. Reducing HIV sexual risk behaviors among runaway adolescents. JAMA. 1991;266:1237–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pack RP, Crosby RA, St Lawrence JS. Associations between adolescents’ sexual risk behavior and scores on six psychometric scales: impulsivity predicts risk. J HIV AIDS Prev Child Youth. 2001;4(1):33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Reitman DD, St. Lawrence JS, Jefferson KW, et al. Predictors of African American adolescents’ condom use and HIV risk behavior. AIDS Educ Prev. 1996;8(6):499–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Salazar LF, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Self-concept and adolescents’ refusal of unprotected sex: a test of mediating mechanisms among African American girls. Prev Sci. 2004;5(3):137–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Harrington K, et al. Body image and African American females’ sexual health. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2002;11(5):433–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    McCree DH, Wingood GM, DiClemente R, et al. Religiosity and risky sexual behavior in African-American adolescent females. J Adolesc Health. 2003;33(1):2–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Crosby RA, DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM, et al. Activity of African-American female teenagers in black organisations is associated with STD/HIV protective behaviours: a prospective analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002;56(7):549–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© GovernmentEmployee: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa M. Romero
    • 1
  • Jennifer S. Galbraith
    • 2
  • Lyndsey Wilson-Williams
    • 1
  • Kari M. Gloppen
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Application Branch, Division of Adolescent and School HealthCDCAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Prevention Research Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS PreventionCDCAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations