AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1401–1414

Correlates of HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Female Military Personnel

  • E. James Essien
  • Emmanuel Monjok
  • Hua Chen
  • Susan Abughosh
  • Ernest Ekong
  • Ronald J. Peters
  • Laurens HolmesJr.
  • Marcia M. Holstad
  • Osaro Mgbere
Original Paper


Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. The study used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that level of education and knowing someone infected with HIV/AIDS were significant (P < 0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-efficacy was significantly (P < 0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom use attitudes were also significantly (P < 0.05) associated with number of children, annual income, and number of sexual partners. Data indicates the importance of incorporating these predictor variables into intervention designs.


HIV/AIDS Risk behaviors Military personnel Nigeria 


  1. 1.
    UNAIDS 2007 Sub-Saharan Africa AIDS Epidemiology Update; 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Esu-Williams E, Mulanga-Kabeya C, Takena H, Zwandor A, Aminu K. Seroprevalence of HIV, HIV-2, and HIV-1 group O in Nigeria: evidence of an increase of HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1997;16:204–10.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    UNAIDS. Engaging Uniformed Services in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS. Accessed 15 Jan 2009.
  4. 4.
    Kaiser Family Foundation. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. HIV/AIDS policy fact sheet; 2005.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    UNAIDS. Epidemiological fact sheet on HIV and AIDS; 2008. Accessed 10 Dec 2009.
  6. 6.
    Caldwell JC. Understanding the AIDS epidemic and reacting sensibly to it. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41:299–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oruboloye IO, Caldwell JC, Caldwell P, Santow G, editors. Sexual networking and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health Transition Centre, The Australian National University, Health Transitions Series No. 4; 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ekong E. HIV/AIDS and the military. In: Adeyi Olusoji, Kanki Phyllis, Odutolu Oluwole, Idoko John, editors. AIDS in Nigeria. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    UNAIDS. AIDS and the military. Best practice collection. Geneva: UNAIDS; 1998.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nwokoji UA, Ajuwon AJ. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel. BMC Public Health. 2004;4:24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Essien EJ, Ogungbade OO, Ward D, Ekong E, Ross MW, Meshack A, Holmes L. Influence of educational status and other variables on HIV risk perception among military personnel: a large cohort finding. Mil Med. 2007;72(11):1177–81.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Essien EJ, Ogungbade OO, Kamiru HN, Ekong E, Ward D, Holmes L. Emerging socio-demographic and lifestyle predictors of intention to use a condom in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) intervention among uniformed services personnel. Mil Med. 2006;171(10):1027–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Okulate GT, Jones OB, Olorunda MB. Condom use and other HIV risk issues among Nigeria soldiers: challenges for identifying peer educators. AIDS Care. 2008;20(8):911–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yeager R, Hendrix C, Kingma S. International military HIV/AIDS policies and programs: strengths and limitations in current practice. Mil Med. 2000;165:87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aniekwu NI. Gender and human rights dimensions of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2002;6(3):30–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kalichman SC, Cherry C, Browne-Sperling F. Effectiveness of a video-based motivational skills-building HIV risk reduction intervention for inner-city African American men. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(6):959–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carey MP, Maisto SA, Kalichman SC, Forsyth A, Wright I, Johnson BT. Enhancing motivation to reduce risk for HIV infection for economically disadvantaged urban women. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:531–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Temoshok LR, Kingma SJ. “HIV exposure risk in military populations: an uncharted prevention frontier,” International Conference on AIDS, July 7–12, 1996; 11:1: 48. Abstract no. Mo. D. 354.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adebayo SB, Mafeni J, Moreland S, Murray N. Knowledge, attitude and sexual behavior among the Nigerian military concerning HIV/AIDS and STDs. Armed Forces Programme on AIDS Control (AFPAC). Final technical report 2002; 95 pp.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jenkins, et al. Correlates of human immunodeficiency virus infection risk behavior in male attendees of a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30(40):723–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bing EG, Ortiz DJ, Ovalle-Bahamon RE, Cheng KG, Huang FH, Enesto F, Duan N. HIV/AIDS behavioral surveillance among Angolan military men. AIDS Behav. 2008;12(4):578–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    UNAIDS. National AIDS programs: a guide to monitoring and evaluating national HIV prevention, AIDS Care, and STD Control Program 2000; UNAIDS/00.17E.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Population Commission [Nigeria]. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey Calverton, Maryland: National Population Commission and ORC/Macro, 2000.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    World Bank: education and HIV/AIDS: a window of hope. Washington, DC, USA; 2002.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zimet GD, Hillier SA, Anglin TM, Ellick EM, Krowchuk DP, Williams P. Knowing someone with AIDS: the impact on adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol. 1991;16:287–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fisher JL. Gender issues with condom use self-efficacy beliefs (Immune deficiency). Diss Abstr Int. 1996;56(10):5754.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ransom JE. Factors related to safer sex behaviors in young college students. Diss Abstr Int. 1998;59(5):2126.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bryan AD, Aiken LS, West SG. Young women’s condom use: the influence of acceptance of sexuality, control over the sexual encounter, and perceived susceptibility to common STIs. Health Psychol. 1997;6:468–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gerteisen GM. HIV/AIDS risk perceptions, health beliefs, perceived self-efficacy and sexual issues related to young women’s condom use behavior. Diss Abstr Int. 1998; 58: 11-B: 5913.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    O’Leary A, Goodhart F, Jemmott S, Boccher-Lattimore D. Predictors of safer sex on the college campus: a social cognitive theory analysis. J Am Coll Health. 1992;40:254–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Adegbola O, Babatola O. Premarital and extramarital sex in Lagos, Nigeria. The Cont Afr HIV/AIDS Epidemic 1999; 19–44.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ladebo OJ, Tanimowo AG. Extension personnel’s sexual behaviour and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in South-Western Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health. 2002;6(2):51–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Orubuloye IO, Caldwell JC, Caldwell P. Perceived male sexual needs and male sexual behavior in Southwest Nigeria. Soc Sci Med. 1997;44(8):1195–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bogart LM, Kral AH, Scott A, Anderson R, Flynn N, Gilbert ML, Bluthenthal RN. Condom attitudes and behaviors among injection drug users participating in California syringe exchange programs. AIDS Behav. 2005;9(4):423–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Geringer WM, Marks S, Allen WJ, Armstrong KA. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior related to condom use and STDs in a high risk population. J Sex Res. 1993;30:75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carballo-Dieguez A, Dolezal C. HIV risk behaviors and obstacles to condom use among Puerto Rican men in New York City who have sex with men. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1619–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Farmer MA, Meston CM. Predictors of condom use self-efficacy in an ethnically diverse university sample. Arch Sex Behav. 2006;35(3):313–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kegeles S, Hays RB, Coates TJ. The Mpowerment Project: a community-level HIV prevention intervention for young gay men. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(8):1129–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dermen KH, et al. Sex-related alcohol expectancies as moderators of the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex in adolescents. J Stud Alcohol. 1998;59(1):71–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fisher J, Fisher W. Changing AIDS-risk behavior. Psychol Bull. 1992;111(3):455–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mize SJS, Robinson BE, Bockting WO, Scheltema KE. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women. AIDS Care. 2002;14(2):163–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. James Essien
    • 1
    • 3
  • Emmanuel Monjok
    • 1
  • Hua Chen
    • 1
  • Susan Abughosh
    • 1
  • Ernest Ekong
    • 2
  • Ronald J. Peters
    • 3
  • Laurens HolmesJr.
    • 4
  • Marcia M. Holstad
    • 5
  • Osaro Mgbere
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Community HealthUniversity of Houston, Texas Medical CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Health Research and DevelopmentLagosNigeria
  3. 3.The University of Texas School of Public HealthHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer ResearchWilmingtonUSA
  5. 5.Nell Hodgson School of NursingEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.Houston Department of Health and Human ServicesHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations