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AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 14, Issue 6, pp 1415–1427 | Cite as

Physiological and Psychosocial Factors that Predict HIV-Related Fatigue

  • Julie Barroso
  • Bradley G. Hammill
  • Jane Leserman
  • Naima Salahuddin
  • James L. Harmon
  • Brian Wells Pence
Original Paper

Abstract

Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms experienced by HIV-infected people. We report the results of our longitudinal analysis of physiological and psychosocial factors that were thought to predict changes in HIV-related fatigue in 128 participants over a 1-year period, in an effort to sort out the complex interplay among a comprehensive set of physiological and psychosocial variables. Physiological measures included hepatic function (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, hepatitis C status), thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine), HIV viral load, immunologic function (CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD16, CD8CD38), gonadal function (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone), hematologic function (hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum erythropoietin), and cellular injury (lactic acid). Psychosocial measures included childhood and adult trauma, anxiety, depression, social support, stressful life events, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Unemployment, not being on antiretroviral therapy, having fewer years since HIV diagnosis, more childhood trauma, more stressful life events, less social support, and more psychological distress (e.g., PTSD, anxiety and depression) put HIV-infected persons at risk for greater fatigue intensity and fatigue-related impairment in functioning during 1-year follow-up. Physiological variables did not predict greater fatigue. Stressful life events had both direct and indirect effects on fatigue.

Keywords

HIV Fatigue Stressful life events Physiological factors Psychosocial factors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study featured here, entitled Fatigue in HIV-Positive People, is funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health (NIH), 5R01NR008681, Sept. 1, 2004–May 31, 2009 (Julie Barroso, principal investigator), and grant number 1UL1RR024128-01, National Center for Research Resources, Duke CTSI, NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NCRR, NINR, or NIH.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Barroso
    • 1
  • Bradley G. Hammill
    • 2
  • Jane Leserman
    • 3
  • Naima Salahuddin
    • 1
  • James L. Harmon
    • 1
  • Brian Wells Pence
    • 4
  1. 1.School of NursingDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Duke Clinical Research InstituteDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke Global Health Institute, and Center for Health PolicyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

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