Targeting HIV Interventions for Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Southern Africa: Use of the PLACE Methodology in Hwange District, Zimbabwe
- 211 Downloads
This paper addresses the issue of how to target interventions to girls 15–19 and young women 20–24 in a resource poor setting of Hwange District, Zimbabwe. The Priorities for Local AIDS Control efforts methodology was used to understand where these young people socialize and also to understand whether age disparate relationships were a common occurrence. Findings indicated prevention efforts for those 15–19 would need to focus on “everyday” sites as these are the places where the majority of girls socialized. However, the girls 15–19 with the riskiest sexual behaviors were found at venues affiliated with alcohol. Prevention efforts for those 20–24 would also need to largely focus on venues affiliated with alcohol. Women at such sites generally reported more risky behaviors than women in other types of venues. Reporting of a partner 5 or more years older was common across age groups and across venues. Tackling HIV in Zimbabwe will take a multifaceted approach targeted towards the places girls 15–19 and young women 20–24 are meeting new partners.
KeywordsHIV Zimbabwe Sexual behavior Adolescents
This study was funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of Cooperative Agreement GPO-A-00-03-00003-00. UNICEF Zimbabwe also provided funding for this study. The authors wish to thanks the study participants, Ilene Speizer for her helpful comments and Elizabeth Jackson for her assistance during the fieldwork.
- Anderson, R. (1999). Transmission dynamics of sexually transmitted infections. In K. Holmes, P. Mardh, & P. Sparling (Eds.), Sexually transmitted diseases (pp. 25–37). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Central Statistical Office (CSO) of Zimbabwe, Macro International Inc. (2007). Zimbabwe demographic and health survey 2005–06. Calverton, Maryland: Author.Google Scholar
- Chinake, H., Dunbar, M., van der Straten, A., Esim, S., Makunike, B., & Padian, N. (2002). Intergenerational sex among adolescents in Zimbabwe. Paper presented at the Fourteenth International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, 7–12 July.Google Scholar
- Cowan, F. M., Langhaug, L., Mashungupa, G. P., Nyamurera, T., Hargive, J., Jaffar, S., et al. (2002). School-based HIV prevention in Zimbabwe: Feasibility and acceptability of evaluation trials using biological outcomes. AIDS (London, England), 16(12), 1673–1678. doi: 10.1097/00002030-200208160-00013. Regai Dzive Shiri Project.Google Scholar
- Fritz, K. E., Woelk, G. B., Bassett, M., McFarland, W. C., Routh, J. A., Tobaiwa, O., et al. (2002). The association between alcohol use, sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among men attending beerhalls in Harare, Zimbabwe. AIDS and Behavior, 6(3), 221–228. doi: 10.1023/A:1019887707474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kelly, R., Gray, R., Sewankambo, N., Serwadda, D., Wabwirre-Mangen, F., Lutalo, F., et al. (2003). Age differences in sexual partners and risk of HIV-1 infection in rural Uganda. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32(4), 446–451. doi: 10.1097/00126334-200304010-00016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- MACRO International Inc. (2008). HIV prevalence estimates from the demographic and health surveys. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.Google Scholar
- Marindi, R., Pearson, S., & Casterline, J. (2003). Condom use and abstinence among unmarried young people in Zimbabwe: Which strategy, whose agenda?. New York: Population Council.Google Scholar
- MEASURE Evaluation Project. (2005). Priorities for local AIDS control efforts 2005. A manual for implementing the PLACE method. Chapel Hill, NC: MEASURE Evaluation Project: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
- Morojele, N. K., Kachieng’a, M. A., Mokoko, E., Nkoko, M. A., Parry, C. D. H., Nkowane, A. M., et al. (2006). Alcohol use and sexual behavior among risky drinkers and bar and shebeen patrons in Gauteng province, South Africa. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 217–227. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.05.031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh, K., Sambisa, W., Munyati, S., Chandiwana, B., Chingono, A. M., & Mashange, W. (2008). PLACE in Zimbabwe: Identifying gaps in HIV prevention among young people in Hwange District, 2006. Chapel Hill, NC: MEASURE Evaluation Project: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
- Tate, J., Singh, K., Ndubani, P., Kwmwanga, J., & Buckner, B. (2008). Measurement of HIV prevention indicators: A comparison of the PLACE method and a household survey in Zambia. AIDS and Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9505-y.
- UNAIDS. (2000). National AIDS programmes: A guide to monitoring and evaluation. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS. (2006). 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic, May 2006. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS. (2008). 2008 Report on the global AIDS epidemic, August 2008. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (2005). Zimbabwe’s Forgotten Children (Retrieved December 10, 2008 from http://www.unicef.org/media/media_25617.html).
- Weir, S., Figueroa, J., Byfield, L., Hall, A., Cummings, S., & Suchindran, C. (2008). A randomized controlled trial to investigate impact of site-based safer sex programs in Kingston, Jamaica: Trial design, methods and baseline findings. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 13(6), 801–813.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2006). Country health system fact sheet 2006 Zimbabwe. (Retrieved December 10, 2008 from http://www.who.int/countries/zwe/en/).