Efficacy of an HIV/STI Prevention Intervention for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: Findings from the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) Project
- 1.8k Downloads
Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, the number of evidence-based interventions for Black MSM is limited. This study evaluated the efficacy of Many Men, Many Voices (3MV), a small-group HIV/STI prevention intervention developed by Black MSM-serving community-based organizations and a university-based HIV/STI prevention and training program. The study sample included 338 Black MSM of HIV-negative or unknown HIV serostatus residing in New York city. Participants were randomly assigned to the 3MV intervention condition (n = 164) or wait-list comparison condition (n = 174). Relative to comparison participants, 3MV participants reported significantly greater reductions in any unprotected anal intercourse with casual male partners; a trend for consistent condom use during receptive anal intercourse with casual male partners; and significantly greater reductions in the number of male sex partners and greater increases in HIV testing. This study is the first randomized trial to demonstrate the efficacy of an HIV/STI prevention intervention for Black MSM.
KeywordsBlack MSM Unprotected anal intercourse Condom use HIV and STI testing Behavioral intervention Prevention
Funding for this evaluation study was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to People of Color in Crisis (POCC), Inc. under cooperative agreements U65/CCU224517 and U65/CCU223830. This study was registered on Clinical Trials. gov (NCT00137631). The authors would like to acknowledge other members of the 3MV Evaluation Team who helped make this study possible: LaRon E. Nelson (Center for Health and Behavioral Training, University of Rochester Medical Center) and project staff at POCC. At the time of this study, Gary English was the Executive Director of POCC and Michael Roberson and Basil Lucus were staff members of POCC. The authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their many contributions to this study: Peter McGrath (Center for Health and Behavioral Training, University of Rochester Medical Center), Duane Moody (Northrop Grumman Mission Systems), Sima Rama (Manila Consulting), Sekhar R. Thadiparthi (Satyam Computer Services Limited), and Kenneth Jones, April Bankston, Cynthia M. Lyles, the late Ida M. Onorato, David Purcell, Pilgrim Spikes, Ron Stall, and Richard J. Wolitski (CDC).
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Academy for Educational Development. (2008). Diffusion of effective behavioral interventions website, Many Men, Many Voices. Retrieved 19 October 2008, from http://www.effectiveinterventions.org/go/interventions/many-men-many-voices.
- Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
- Bernstein, K. T., Liu, K., Begier, E. M., Koblin, B., Karpati, A., & Murrill, C. (2008). Same-sex attraction disclosure to health care providers among New York city men who have sex with men: Implications for HIV testing approaches. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168, 1458–1464. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.13.1458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berry, M., Raymond, H. F., & McFarland, W. (2007). Same race and older partner selection may explain higher HIV prevalence among Black men who have sex with men. AIDS (London, England), 21, 249–350.Google Scholar
- Black Gay Men’s Research Group. (2007). Black gay research agenda. New York: Black Gay Men’s Research Group and National Black Gay Men’s Advocacy Coalition.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(RR-19), 1–62.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Evaluation of innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions for high-risk minority populations. Federal Register, 69(134), 42183–42190.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). HIV prevalence, unrecognized infection, and HIV testing among men who have sex with men—Five US cities, June 2004–April 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54, 597–601.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008a). Subpopulation estimates from the HIV incidence surveillance system—United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57, 985–989.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008b). Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses among men who have sex with men-33 states, 2001–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57, 681–686.Google Scholar
- Cohen, C. (1999). The boundaries of blackness: AIDS and the breakdown of Black politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Coury-Doniger, P., English, G., Jenersen, E., McGrath, P., & Scahill, M. (1998). Many men, many voices (3MV): A STD/HIV prevention intervention for Black gay men. Rochester, NY: Center for Health and Behavioral Training, University of Rochester.Google Scholar
- Coury-Doniger, P., Knox, K., Morgan, J., Jenersen, E., McGrath, P., Scahill, M., et al. (2001). The development of a science-based HIV prevention intervention for gay men of color. Poster session presented at the National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
- Eng, T. R., & Butler, W. T. (1997). The hidden epidemic: Confronting sexually transmitted diseases. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Fullilove, R. (2006). African Americans, health disparities and HIV/AIDS: Recommendations for confronting the epidemic in Black America. Washington, DC: National Minority AIDS Council.Google Scholar
- Guzman, R., Colfax, G. N., Wheeler, S., Mansergh, G., Marks, G., Rader, M., et al. (2005). Negotiated safety relationships and sexual behavior among a diverse sample of HIV-negative men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38, 82–86. doi: 10.1097/00126334-200501010-00015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Herbst, J. H., Beeker, C., Matthew, A., McNally, T., Passin, W. F., Kay, L. S., et al. (2007). The effectiveness of individual-, group-, and community-level HIV behavioral risk-reduction interventions for adult men who have sex with men: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, S38–S67. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.12.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Janis, I., & Mann, L. (1977). Decision making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Johnson, W. D., Diaz, R. M., Flanders, W. D., Goodman, M., Hill, A. N., Holtgrave, D., et al. (2008). Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 16(3). Retrieved 17 September 2008, from http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001230/frame.html.
- Kelly, J. A. (1995). Changing HIV risk behavior. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Knights, D., Cochrane, C., & Blausey, D. (2008). Maximize client behavior change with 3MV DEBI intervention: Many men, many voices at GMHC. Workshop presented at the 2008 HIV Prevention Leadership Summit, Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
- Koblin, B., Mayer, K., HPTN 061 Protocol Team. (2008). HPTN 061: Feasibility study of a community-level, multi-component intervention for Black men who have sex with men. New York: New York Blood Center. Retrieved 17 September 2008, from http://www.hptn.org/research_studies/hptn061.asp.
- Metzger, D. S., Koblin, B., Turner, C., Navaline, H., Valenti, F., Holte, S., et al. (2000). Randomized controlled trial of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing: Utility and acceptability in longitudinal studies. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152, 99–106. doi: 10.1093/aje/152.2.99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Millett, G. A., Flores, S. A., Peterson, J. L., & Bakeman, R. (2007). Explaining disparities in HIV infection among Black and White men who have sex with men: A meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors. AIDS (London, England), 21, 2083–2091.Google Scholar
- Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (Eds.). (2003). Community based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2008a). HIV epidemiology and field services semiannual report: Covering January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007, Vol. 3, No. 1–4. New York, NY: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved 17 September 2008, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/dires/dires-2008-report-semi1.pdf.
- New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2008b). Health department releases estimate of yearly HIV infections. New York, NY: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Retrieved 26 September 2008, from http://home2.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/pr2008/pr057-08.shtml.
- New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Sexually Transmitted Disease Control. (2007). Quarterly Report, Vol. 5, No. 1. New York, NY: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Sexually Transmitted Disease Control.Google Scholar
- Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of the structure of behavior change. In J. D. Fisher, J. M. Chensky, & A. Nadler, (Eds.). Initiating self-changes: Social psychological and clinical perspectives. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Wilton, L. (2009). Men who have sex with men of color in the age of AIDS: The sociocultural contexts of stigma, marginalization, and structural inequalities. In V. Stone, B. Ojikutu, K. Rawlings, & K. Smith (Eds.), HIV/AIDS in minority communities. New York: Springer Publications.Google Scholar
- Wolitski, R. J., Gómez, C. A., Parsons, J. T., & SUMIT Study Group. (2005). Effects of a peer-led behavioral intervention to reduce HIV transmission and promote serostatus disclosure among HIV-seropositive gay and bisexual men. AIDS (London, England), 19(Suppl. 1), S99–S109.Google Scholar