Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads
- 97 Downloads
In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs.
KeywordsInjecting drug users Risk networks Injecting risk Dyad analysis Russia
The study was funded by National Institute on Drug Abuse, Grant number R01 DA016142. The first author was funded by the Ruth L. Kirschstein award, Drug Dependence Epidemiology Training Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Grant T32 DA007292. We would like to thank all participants and study staff.
- Amirkhanian, Y. A., Kelly, J. A., Kirsanova, A. V., DiFranceisco, W., Khoursine, R. A., Semenov, A. V., et al. (2006). HIV risk behaviour patterns, predictors, and sexually transmitted disease prevalence in the social networks of young men who have sex with men in St Petersburg, Russia. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 17, 50–56. doi: 10.1258/095646206775220504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cox, J., De, P., Morissette, C., Tremblay, C., Stephenson, R., Allard, R., et al. (2008). Low perceived benefits and self-efficacy are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection-related risk among injection drug users. Social Science and Medicine, 66, 211–220. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Des Jarlais, D. C., Perlis, T., Arasteh, K., Hagan, H., Milliken, J., Braine, N., et al. (2004). “Informed altruism” and “partner restriction” in the reduction of HIV infection in injecting drug users entering detoxification treatment in New York City, 1990–2001. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35, 158–166. doi: 10.1097/00126334-200402010-00010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Desenclos, J. C., Papaevangelou, G., & Ancelle-Park, R. (1993). Knowledge of HIV serostatus and preventive behaviour among European injecting drug users. The European community study group on HIV in injecting drug users. AIDS (London, England), 7, 1371–1377. doi: 10.1097/00002030-199310000-00011.Google Scholar
- European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (2007). HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe, end year report 2006. 73, Saint Maurice: Institute de Veille Sanitaire.Google Scholar
- Evans, J. L., Hahn, J. A., Page-Shafer, K., Lum, P. J., Stein, E. S., Davidson, P. J., et al. (2003). Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study). Journal of Urban Health, 80, 137–146. doi: 10.1093/jurban/jtg137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedman, S. R., Curtis, R., Neaigus, A., Jose, B., & Des Jarlais, D. C. (1999). Social networks, drug injectors’ lives, and HIV. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- Friedman, S. R., Kippax, S. C., Phaswana-Mafuya, N., Rossi, D., & Newman, C. E. (2006). Emerging future issues in HIV/AIDS social research. AIDS (London, England), 20, 959–965.Google Scholar
- Gyarmathy, V. A., & Neaigus, A. (2006). The effect of personal network exposure on injecting equipment sharing among Hungarian IDUs. Connections, 15, 29–42.Google Scholar
- Gyarmathy, V. A., & Neaigus, A. (2007). The relationship of sexual dyad and personal network characteristics and individual attributes to unprotected sex among young injecting drug users. AIDS and Behavior. doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9285-9.
- Gyarmathy, V., Li, N., Tobin, K., Hoffman, I., Sokolov, N., Levchenko, J., et al. (2009). Correlates of unsafe injecting among injecting drug users in St Petersburg, Russia. European Addiction Research, (in press).Google Scholar
- Heimer, R., Barbour, R., Shaboltas, A. V., Hoffman, I. F., & Kozlov, A. P. (2008). Spatial distribution of HIV prevalence and incidence among injection drugs users in St Petersburg: Implications for HIV transmission. AIDS (London, England), 22, 123–130.Google Scholar
- Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Cook, W. (2006). Dyadic data analysis. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kozlov, A. P., Shaboltas, A. V., Toussova, O. V., Verevochkin, S. V., Masse, B. R., Perdue, T., et al. (2006). HIV incidence and factors associated with HIV acquisition among injection drug users in St Petersburg, Russia. AIDS (London, England), 20, 901–906. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000218555.36661.9c.Google Scholar
- Latkin, C., & Knowlton, A. R. (2005). Social network approaches to HIV prevention: Implications to community impact and sustainability. Trickett, E. J. & Pequegnat, W. (Eds.), (pp. 105–129). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Latkin, C., Mandell, W., Oziemkowska, M., Vlahov, D., & Celentano, D. (1994). The relationships between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and personal network characteristics among injecting drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 21, 161–167. doi: 10.1097/00007435-199405000-00006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neaigus, A., Gyarmathy, V. A., Miller, M., Frajzyngier, V. M., Friedman, S. R., & Des Jarlais, D. C. (2006). Transitions to injecting drug use among noninjecting heroin users: Social network influence and individual susceptibility. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41, 493–503. doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000186391.49205.3b.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Schlumberger, M. G., Desenclos, J. C., Papaevangelou, G., Richardson, S. C., & Ancelle-Park, R. (1999). Knowledge of HIV serostatus and preventive behaviour among European injecting drug users: Second study. European community study group on HIV in injecting drug users. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15, 207–215. doi: 10.1023/A:1007578402083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith, A. M., Grierson, J., Wain, D., Pitts, M., & Pattison, P. (2004). Associations between the sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men and the structure and composition of their social networks. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80, 455–458. doi: 10.1136/sti.2004.010355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Somach, S. D., Kochkina, E., & Shlyk, E. (2004). Gender assessment for USAID, Russia—USAID Contract #: GEW-I-01-02-00019-00. www.devtechsys.com/publications/gender/assesments/Final%20Report,%20Russia.pdf: DevTech Systems, Inc.
- Todd, C. S., Abed, A. M., Scott, P. T., Botros, B. A., Safi, N., Earhart, K. C., et al. (2008). Correlates of receptive and distributive needle sharing among injection drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34, 91–100. doi: 10.1080/00952990701764771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Unger, J. B., Kipke, M. D., De Rosa, C. J., Hyde, J., Ritt-Olson, A., & Montgomery, S. (2006). Needle-sharing among young IV drug users and their social network members: The influence of the injection partner’s characteristics on HIV risk behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1607–1618. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.12.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Valente, T. W. (1995). Network models of the diffusion of innovations. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar